Nanocomposites have been widely used to improve material properties. Nanoscale reinforcement materials in vat photopolymerization resins improve the hardness, tensile strength, impact strength, elongation, and electrical conductivity of the printed products. This paper presents a literature review on the effects of reinforcement materials on nanocomposite properties. Additionally, preprocessing techniques, printing processes, and postprocessing techniques of nanocomposites are discussed. The nanocomposite properties are summarized based on their applications in the mechanical, electrical and magnetic, and biomedical industries. Future research directions are proposed to improve the material properties of printed nanocomposites.