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EDITORIAL

J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):1. doi:10.1115/1.2834299.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

RESEARCH PAPERS

J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):2-8. doi:10.1115/1.2834303.

Atherosclerotic lesions tend to localize at curvatures and branches of the arterial system, where the local flow is often disturbed and irregular (e.g., flow separation, recirculation, complex flow patterns, and nonuniform shear stress distributions). The effects of such flow conditions on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied in vitro by using a vertical-step flow channel (VSF). Detailed shear stress distributions and flow structures have been computed by using the finite volume method in a general curvilinear coordinate system. HUVECs in the reattachment areas with low shear stresses were generally rounded in shape. In contrast, the cells under higher shear stresses were significantly elongated and aligned with the flow direction, even for those in the area with reversed flow. When HUVECs were subjected to shearing in VSF, their actin stress fibers reorganized in association with the morphological changes. The rate of DNA synthesis in the vicinity of the flow reattachment area was higher than that in the laminar flow area. These in vitro experiments have provided data for the understanding of the in vivo responses of endothelial cells under complex flow environments found in regions of prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):9-17. doi:10.1115/1.2834313.

This study aimed to model phenomenologically the dynamics of arterial wall remodeling under hypertensive conditions. Sustained hypertension was simulated by a step increase in blood pressure. The arterial wall was considered to be a thick-walled tube made of nonlinear elastic incompressible material. Remodeling rate equations were postulated for the evolution of the geometric dimensions of the hypertensive artery at the zero-stress state, as well as for one of the material constants in the constitutive equations. The driving stimuli for the geometric adaptation are the normalized deviations of wall stresses from their values under normotensive conditions. The geometric dimensions are modulated by the evolution of the deformed inner radius, which serves to restore the level of the flow-induced shear stresses at the arterial endothelium. Mechanical adaptation is driven by the difference between the area compliance under hypertensive and normotensive conditions. The predicted time course of the geometry and mechanical properties of arterial wall are in good qualitative agreement with published experimental findings. The model predicts that the geometric adaptation maintains the stress distribution in arterial wall to its control level, while the mechanical adaptation restores the normal arterial function under induced hypertension.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):18-21. doi:10.1115/1.2834298.

Vessel geometry is commonly accepted as one of the primary factors influencing blood flow patterns. The vessels near the heart present a particular challenge because myocardial contraction creates dynamic changes in vessel geometry due to the movement created by the contraction of the myocardial muscle. The importance of vessel movement and deformation on blood flow patterns in the coronary arteries has been previously demonstrated. For larger vessels such as the aorta, the effects are less well understood, partially because no estimates of the dynamic variations in vessel cross section shape geometry have been reported. This study was undertaken to provide an estimate of the amount of dynamic variation in cross-sectional shape present in the aorta. Two young healthy male subjects were used, with measurements taken in the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending thoracic aorta using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The magnitude of elliptical deformation was measured throughout the cardiac cycle by taking a discrete Fourier transform of the radius versus angle plot. Deformations of more than 7 percent of the mean vessel radius were noted. This level of deformation may be enough to influence flow patterns in the aorta significantly, and thus should be included in future flow studies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):22-26. doi:10.1115/1.2834301.
Abstract
Topics: Heat , Temperature , Proteins
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):27-31. doi:10.1115/1.2834302.

The thermodynamics of intracellular ice nucleation are important in low-temperature biology for understanding and controlling the process of cell destruction by freezing. We have developed a new apparatus and technique for studying the physics of intracellular ice nucleation. Employing the principle of directional solidification in conjunction with light microscopy, we can generate information on the temperature at which ice nucleates intracellularly as a function of the thermal history the cells experience. The methodology is introduced, and results with primary prostatic cancer cells are described.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):32-37. doi:10.1115/1.2834304.

A multidimensional, finite difference numerical scheme for the freezing process of biological tissues during cryosurgery is presented, which is a modification of an earlier numerical solution for inanimate materials. The tissues are treated as nonideal materials, freezing over a temperature range and possessing temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, blood perfusion, and metabolic heat generation. The numerical scheme is based on the application of an effective specific heat, substituting the intrinsic property, to include the latent heat effect within the phase transition temperature range. Results of the numerical solution were verified against an existing exact solution of a one-dimensional inverse Stefan problem in Cartesian coordinates. Results were further validated against experimental data available from the literature. The utility of the numerical solution for the design and application of cryodevices is demonstrated by parametric studies of the freezing processes around spherical and cylindrical cryoprobes. The parameters studied are the cryoprobe cooling power and the dimensions of the frozen region. Results are calculated for typical thermophysical properties of soft biological tissues, for angioma and for water.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):38-47. doi:10.1115/1.2834305.

Biaxial mechanical testing and theoretical continuum mechanics analysis are employed to formulate a constitutive law for cardiac mitral valve anterior and posterior leaflets. A strain energy description is formulated based on the fibrous architecture of the tissue, accurately describing the large deformation, highly nonlinear transversely isotropic material behavior. The results show that a simple three-coefficient exponential constitutive law provides an accurate prediction of stress–stretch behavior over a wide range of deformations. Regional heterogeneity may be accommodated by spatially varying a single coefficient and incorporating collagen fiber angle. The application of this quantitative information to mechanical models and bioprosthetic development could provide substantial improvement in the evaluation and treatment of valvular disease, surgery, and replacement.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):48-54. doi:10.1115/1.2834306.

A viscoelastic finite element model of a L2-L3 motion segment was constructed and used to study: (1) the behavior of the intervertebral disc with different amounts of nucleus fluid loss; and (2) the effect of different rates of fluid loss on the viscoelastic behavior of the disc. The results indicate that: (1) The viscoelastic behavior of the intervertebral disc depends to a large extent on the rate of fluid loss from the disc; the intrinsic properties of disc tissue play a role only at the early stage of compressive loading; (2) the axial strain increases, whereas the intradiscal pressure and the posterior radial disc bulge decrease with increasing fluid loss; (3) a decreasing fluid loss rate with a total fluid loss of 10 to 20 percent (from the nucleus) during the first hour of compressive loading best predicts the overall viscoelastic behavior of a disc.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):55-61. doi:10.1115/1.2834307.

We propose a microstructural model for the uniaxial tensile constitutive and failure behavior of soft skeletal connective tissues. The model characterizes the tissues as two-phase composites consisting of collagen fibers embedded in ground substance. Nonlinear toe region behavior in the stress versus strain curve results from the straightening of crimped fibers and from fiber reorientation. Subsequent linear behavior results from fiber stretching affected by fiber volume fraction, collagen type, crosslink density, and fiber orientation. Finally, the tissue fails when fibers successively rupture at their ultimate tensile strain. We apply the model to tendon, meniscus, and articular cartilage. The model provides a consistent approach to modeling the tensile behavior of a wide range of soft skeletal connective tissues.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):62-70. doi:10.1115/1.2834308.

The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical and computational framework to apply the finite element method to anisotropic, viscoelastic soft tissues. The quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory provided the basis for the development. To allow efficient and easy computational implementation, a discrete spectrum approximation was developed for the QLV relaxation function. This approximation provided a graphic means to fit experimental data with an exponential series. A transversely isotropic hyperelastic material model developed for ligaments and tendons was used for the elastic response. The viscoelastic material model was implemented in a general-purpose, nonlinear finite element program. Test problems were analyzed to assess the performance of the discrete spectrum approximation and the accuracy of the finite element implementation. Results indicated that the formulation can reproduce the anisotropy and time-dependent material behavior observed in soft tissues. Application of the formulation to the analysis of the human femur-medial collateral ligament–tibia complex demonstrated the ability of the formulation to analyze large three-dimensional problems in the mechanics of biological joints.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):71-76. doi:10.1115/1.2834309.

This study evaluates the variations in the acoustic properties of the human femur at ten evenly spaced locations along its length, as well as differences that exist within given transverse sections. Six pairs of human femora, three male and three female, were sectioned, ground, and polished, and scanned with a microprocessor-driven scanning acoustic microscope. Images with a resolution of approximately 140 μm were used to calculate the average acoustic impedances for each transverse cross section and each quadrant within a cross section. The mean acoustic impedance for all the cross sections was 7.69 ± 0.18 Mrayls. Variations were observed among the cross sections, and the central sections (4–7) had values that were statistically greater than the other more distal and proximal sections. Within the cross sections, the posterior quadrant had a lower average acoustic impedance compared to the other quadrants and this was statistically significant (Tukey’s multiple comparison test). The cross sections were further analyzed to determine several geometric parameters including the principal moments of inertia, polar moment of inertia, and the biomechanical shape index. The product of the acoustic impedance and the maximum moment of inertia provided a result that attempted to account for the acoustic property variation and the change in shape at the different section locations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):77-84. doi:10.1115/1.2834310.

The composition and amount of extracellular matrix produced by chondrocytes are thought to be influenced by the stress and strain states in the vicinity of the chondrocytes. During daily activities, such as walking and running, articular joints are loaded dynamically. In the present study, a solution is proposed to simulate the responses of a joint under dynamic loading. In order to show the characteristics of the proposed solution, numerical simulations were carried out, in which the contact radius, the relative approach displacement between the centers of the contacting bodies, or the contact force were controlled. As a result of the history-dependent material properties of the articular cartilage, the predicted parameters changed nonperiodically, when the controlled parameters varied periodically. For a constant load, the contact radius and the relative displacement between the contacting bodies were predicted to increase at decreasing rates. When the contact force was varied dynamically, the predicted mean values of the contact radius, the relative displacement between the contacting bodies, and the contact pressure at the center of the contact area depended on the amplitude and the duration of the loading. When the relative displacement between the contacting bodies was controlled, the amplitudes and the cycling frequency must be limited to avoid a loss of contact between the articular joint surfaces. The proposed solution is valid for a long but limited time period, the exact extent of which is yet to be determined. It can be used to simulate the effects associated with cartilage degeneration in diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):85-91. doi:10.1115/1.2834311.

Stress–strain relationships of bovine tibial periosteum, harvested from anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior aspects of tibia, were successfully measured using a newly developed experimental system. Results showed a curvilinear stress–strain pattern having three regions, i.e., toe, almost linear, and rupture regions, which resembled those of biological soft tissues like ligaments, skin, etc. Tensile moduli in the toe region (Ee) and in the linear region (Ec) were obtained by linear regressional analyses. These values and the tensile strength (σt ) showed clear local differences. The values of Ee, Ec, and σt , in the longitudinal direction in the metaphyseal regions where ligaments or connective tissues attach were approximately two times larger than those in the diaphysis, where muscles or connective tissues attach. However, these properties in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions with muscle attachments were almost the same. In the transverse direction, these properties in the anterior proximal metaphysis were approximately two times larger than those in the diaphysis and in the distal metaphysis. In the other regions, these properties appeared not to be significantly different. These results clearly demonstrate that the mechanical properties of periosteum are strongly influenced by the ligament and muscle attachments.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):92-99. doi:10.1115/1.2834312.

The objective of this study was to examine how changes in glenohumeral joint conformity and loading patterns affected the forces and strains developed at the glenoid. After removal of soft tissue (muscles, ligaments, and labrum), force-displacement data were collected for both natural and prosthetically reconstructed joints. Joints were shown to develop higher forces for a given translation as joint conformity increased. A rigid body model of joint contact forces was used to determined the so-called effective radial mismatch of each joint. For the purposes of this study, the effective radial mismatch is defined as the mismatch required for a rigid body joint to have the same force-displacement relationship as the joint in question. This parameter is an indication of the deformation at the articular surface. The effective radial mismatch dramatically increased with increasing medial loads, indicating that under physiological loads, the effective radial mismatch of a joint is much greater than its measured mismatch at no load. This increase in effective mismatch as medial loads were increased was found to be threefold greater in cartilaginous joints than in reconstructed joints. Rosette strain gages positioned at the midlevel of the glenoid keel in the reconstructed joints revealed that anterior/posterior component loading leads to fully reversible cyclic keel strains. The highest compressive strains occurred with the head centered in the glenoid, and were larger for nonconforming joints (ε = 0.23 percent). These strains became tensile just before rim loading and were greater for conforming joints (ε = 0.15 percent). Although recorded peak strains are below the yield point for polyethylene, the fully reversed cyclic loading of the component in this fashion may ultimately lead to component toggling and implant failure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):100-104. doi:10.1115/1.2834288.

Considerable advances have been made to determine the failure biomechanical properties of the human thoracic spinal column and its components. Except for a few fundamental studies, there is a paucity of such data for the costovertebral elements. The present study was designed to determine the biomechanics of the human thoracic spine ribs from a large population. Seventh and eighth ribs bilaterally were tested from 30 human cadavers using the principles of three-point bending techniques to failure. Biomechanical test parameters included the cross-sectional area (core, marrow, and total), moment of inertia, failure load, deflection, and the Young’s elastic modulus. The strength-related results indicated no specific bias with respect to anatomical level and hemisphere (right or left), although the geometry-related variables demonstrated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the seventh and the eighth ribs. This study offers basic biomechanical information on the ultimate failure and geometric characteristics of the human thoracic spine ribs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):105-111. doi:10.1115/1.2834289.

The biomechanical properties of human ankle-subtalar joints have been determined in a quasi-static loading condition. The moving center of rotation was determined and approximated by a fixed point. The moment-angle characteristics of the ankle-subtalar joints about the fixed center of rotation have been measured under four basic movements: dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion. The method linearly increases rotation of the calcaneus until failure, and measures the moments, forces, and linear and rotational displacements. Failure was identified as the initial drop of moment on plot showing the moment representing gross injury or microfilament damage. In this study, 32 human ankle-subtalar joints have been tested to failure. The center of rotation of the ankle-subtalar joints was determined for a pure dorsiflexion (9 specimens), plantarflexion (7 specimens), inversion (8 specimens), and eversion (8 specimens), Failure in the joints occurred at an average moment of −33.1 ± 16.5 Nm in dorsiflexion, 40.1 ± 9.2 Nm in plantarflexion, −34.1 ± 14.5 Nm in inversion, and 48.1 ± 12.2 Nm in eversion. The failure angle was also determined in all four motions. Failure was best predicted by an angle of −44.0 ± 10.9 deg in dorsiflexion, 71.6 ± 5.7 deg in plantarflexion, −34.3 ± 7.5 deg in inversion, and 32.4 ± 7.3 deg in eversion. Injury was identified in every preparation tested in inversion and eversion, while it resulted in five of the nine preparations in dorsiflexion, and in three of the seven in plantarflexion. Injury occurred at −47.0 ± 5.3 deg and −36.2 ± 14.8 Nm in dorsiflexion, and at 68.7 ± 5.9 deg and 36.7 ± 2.5 Nm in plantarflexion. The results obtained in this study provide basic information of the ankle-subtalar joint kinematics, biomechanics, and injury. The data will be used to form a basis for corridors of the ankle-subtalar joint responses.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):112-117. doi:10.1115/1.2834290.

Microcracks have been associated with age-related bone tissue fragility and fractures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple osteonal cortical bone model and apply linear elastic fracture mechanics theory to understand the micromechanics of the fracture process in osteonal cortical bone and its dependence on material properties. The linear fracture mechanics of our composite model of conical bone, consisting of an osteon and interstitial bone tissue, was characterized in terms of a stress intensity factor (SIF) near the tip of a microcrack. The interaction between a microcrack and an osteon was studied for different types of osteons and various spacing between the crack and the osteon. The results of the analysis indicate that the fracture mechanics of osteonal cortical bone is dominated by the modulus ratio between the osteon and interstitial bone tissue: A soft osteon promotes microcrack propagation toward the osteon (and cement line) while a stiff one repels the microcrack from the osteon (and cement line). These findings suggest that newly formed, low-stiffness osteons may toughen cortical bone tissue by promoting crack propagation toward osteons. A relatively accurate empirical formula also was obtained to provide an easy estimation of the influence of osteons on the stress intensity factor.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):118-125. doi:10.1115/1.2834291.

A finite element (FE) based scheme for modeling facet articulation in a spinal motion segment is proposed. The algorithm presented models the facet articulation as a nonlinear progressive contact problem. This algorithm is used to perform a nonlinear FE analysis of a complete L3-L4 motion segment. The role of facets in load transmission through a motion segment and its sensitivity to facet geometric parameters (i.e., spatial orientation of the facets and the gap between the facet articular surfaces) on this load transmission are studied. Compression, flexion, extension, and torsion loads are used in this study. The effect of facetectomy on gross segment response and disk fiber strains is studied by comparing the response of FE models of motion segment with and without facets. Large facet loads are obtained when the motion segment is subjected to torsional and large extension rotations, whereas minimal facet loads are observed under compression and flexion loading. Removal of facets reduces the segment stiffness considerably in torsion and results in higher strain levels in disk fibers. The facet load transmission is sensitive to facet geometric parameters, i.e., spatial orientation and initial facet joint gap. The facet loads increase uniformly with decrease in initial gap between the facet articular surfaces under compression, extension, and torsional loads. The sensitivity to spatial orientation angles of the facet is, however, found to vary with the type of loading. This sensitivity may account for the wide variation in the facet response reported in literature.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):126-132. doi:10.1115/1.2834292.

The passive and stimulated engineering stress–large strain mechanical properties of skeletal muscle were measured at the midbelly of the rabbit tibialis anterior. The purpose of these experiments was to provide previously unavailable constitutive information based on the true geometry of the muscle and to determine the effect of strain rate on these responses. An apparatus including an ultrasound imager, high-speed digital imager, and a servohydraulic linear actuator was used to apply constant velocity deformations to the tibialis anterior of an anesthetized neurovascularly intact rabbit. The average isometric tetanic stress prior to elongation was 0.44 ± 0.15 MPa. During elongation the average stimulated modulus was 0.97 ± 0.34 MPa and was insensitive to rate of loading. The passive stress–strain responses showed a nonlinear stiffening response typical of biologic soft tissue. Both the passive and stimulated stress–strain responses were sensitive to strain rate over the range of strain rates (1 to 25 s−1 ). Smaller changes in average strain rate (1 to 10, and 10 to 25 s−1 ) did not produce statistically significant changes in these responses, particularly in the stimulated responses, which were less sensitive to average strain rate than the passive responses. This relative insensitivity to strain rate suggests that pseudoelastic functions generated from an appropriate strain rate test may be suitable for the characterization of the responses of muscle over a narrow range of strain rates, particularly in stimulated muscle.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):133-139. doi:10.1115/1.2834293.

Measuring the vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM) of the body during walking may provide useful information about the energy required to walk. Four methods of varying complexity to estimate the vertical displacement of the COM were compared in 25 able-bodied, female subjects. The first method, the sacral marker method, utilized an external marker on the sacrum as representative of the COM of the body. The second method, the reconstructed pelvis method, which also utilized a marker over the sacrum, theoretically controlled for pelvic tilt motion. The third method, the segmental analysis method, involved measuring motion of the trunk and limb segments. The fourth method, the forceplate method, involved estimating the COM displacement from ground reaction force measurements. A two-tailed paired t-test within an ANOVA showed no statistically significant difference between the sacral marker and the reconstructed pelvis methods (p = 0.839). There was also no statistically significant difference between the sacral marker and the segmental analysis method (p = 0.119) or between the reconstructed pelvis and the segmental analysis method (p = 0.174). It follows that the first method, which is the most simple, can provide essentially the same estimate of the vertical displacement of the COM as the more complicated second and third measures. The forceplate method produced data with a lower range and a different distribution than the other three methods. There was a statistically significant difference between the forceplate method and the other methods (p < 0.01 for each of the three comparisons). The forceplate method provides information that is statistically significantly different from the results of the kinematic methods. The magnitude of the difference is large enough to be physiologically significant and further studies to define the sources of the differences and the relative validity of the two approaches are warranted.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):140-147. doi:10.1115/1.2834294.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a severe head injury, which exhibits symptoms of consciousness disturbance and is thought to occur through rotational angular acceleration. This paper analyzes the occurrence of DAI when direct impacts with translational accelerations are applied to two-dimensional head models. We constructed a human model reproducing the human head structure, as well as modified human models with some internal head structures removed. Blunt direct impacts were applied from a lateral direction to the bottom of the third ventricle, considered to be the center of impact, using an impactor. The analysis was done by comparing the macroscopic manifestation of DAI with the shear stress as the engineering index. In the analytical data obtained from the human model, shear stresses were concentrated on the corpus callosum and the brain stem, in the deep area. This agrees with regions of the DAI indicated by small hemorrhages in the corpus callosum and the brain stem. The analytical data obtained by the modified human models show that the high shear stress on the corpus callosum is influenced by the falx cerebri, while the high shear stress on the brain stem is influenced by the tentorium cerebelli and the shape of the brain. These results indicate that DAI, generally considered to be influenced by angular acceleration, may also occur through direct impact with translational acceleration. We deduced that the injury mechanism of DAI is related to the concentration of shear stress on the core of the brain, since the internal head structures influence the impact stress concentration.

Topics: Structures , Wounds
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):148-159. doi:10.1115/1.2834295.

A least-squares approach to computing inverse dynamics is proposed. The method utilizes equations of motion for a multi-segment body, incorporating terms for ground reaction forces and torques. The resulting system is overdetermined at each point in time, because kinematic and force measurements outnumber unknown torques, and may be solved using weighted least squares to yield estimates of the joint torques and joint angular accelerations that best match measured data. An error analysis makes it possible to predict error magnitudes for both conventional and least-squares methods. A modification of the method also makes it possible to reject constant biases such as those arising from misalignment of force plate and kinematic measurement reference frames. A benchmark case is presented, which demonstrates reductions in joint torque errors on the order of 30 percent compared to the conventional Newton–Euler method, for a wide range of noise levels on measured data. The advantages over the Newton–Euler method include making best use of all available measurements, ability to function when less than a full complement of ground reaction forces is measured, suppression of residual torques acting on the top-most body segment, and the rejection of constant biases in data.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL BRIEFS

J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(1):160-164. doi:10.1115/1.2834297.

This paper describes the design and accuracy evaluation of a dynamometric pedal, which measures the two pedal force components in the plane of the bicycle. To realize a design that could be used during actual off-road cycling, a popular clipless pedal available commercially was modified so that both the form and the function of the original design were maintained. To measure the load components of interest, the pedal spindle was replaced with a spindle fixed to the pedal body and instrumented with eight strain gages connected into two Wheatstone bridge circuits. The new spindle is supported by bearings in the crank arm. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check revealed root mean square errors of less than 1 percent full scale (FS) when only the force components of interest were applied. Application of unmeasured load components created an error less than 2 percent FS. The natural frequency with half the weight of a 75 kgf person standing on the pedal was greater than 135 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer suitable for measuring either pedaling loads due to the rider’s muscular action or inertial loads due to surface-induced acceleration. To demonstrate this suitability, sample pedal load data are presented both for steady-state ergometer cycling and coasting over a rough surface while standing.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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