J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):285-294. doi:10.1115/1.3138496.

A new composite prosthesis was recently proposed for the anterior cruciate ligament. It is implanted in the femur and the tibia through two anchoring channels. Its intra-articular portion, composed of a fiber mesh sheath wrapped around a silicons rubber cylindrical core, reproduces satisfactorily the ligament response in tension. However, the prosthesis does not only undergo elongation. In addition, it is submitted to torsion in its intra-articular portion and bending at its ends. This paper presents a new method to evaluate these two types of deformations throughout a knee flexion by means of a geometric model of the implanted prosthesis. Input data originate from two sources: (i) a three-dimensional anatomic topology of the knee joint in full extension, providing the localization of the prosthesis anchoring channels, and ii) a kinematic model of the knee describing the motion of these anchoring channels during a physiological flexion of the knee joint. The evaluation method is independent of the way input data are obtained. This method, applied to a right cadaveric knee, shows that the orientation of the anchoring channels has a large effect on the extent of torsion and bending applied to the implanted prosthesis throughout a knee flexion, especially on the femoral side. The study suggests also the best choice for the anchoring channel axes orientation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):295-301. doi:10.1115/1.3138497.

A three-dimensional, linear finite element model was generated for an intact plexiglass tube with an attached six-hole stainless steel compression plate. We examined external forces representing axial, off-center axial, and four-point bending, along with superimposed plate and screw pretension. Strain gage experiments were conducted to test model validity and the finite element results were contrasted to a composite beam theory solution. Excellent correspondence was observed between finite element and strain gage data for the most significant strain components. Composite beam theory tended to overestimate the neutral axis shift which results from plate application. The model also demonstrated fracture site distraction due to plate pretension, and the tendency for outer screw failure for the combination of bending-closed with a preload in the plate and screws.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):302-308. doi:10.1115/1.3138498.

The otolith organs are the linear motion sensors of the inner ear. They comprise an overdamped second-order system and respond to gravity and skull acceleration. The governing equations of motion which describe the relative displacement of the mass with respect to the skull are developed. When these equations are non-dimensionalized they indicate that the elastic term is almost negligible with respect to the viscous and inertial terms. For a step change in skull velocity an analytic solution is given for the elastic term equal to zero and numeric solutions are given for small values of the elastic term.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):309-314. doi:10.1115/1.3138499.

The time-dependent pressure curves of a pulsatile flow across rigid and pulsating stenoses were investigated experimentally in a laboratory simulator of the outflow tract of the heart right ventricle. The experiments were performed within the range of physiological conditions of frequency and flow rate. The experimental setup consisted of a closed flow system which was operated by a pulsatile pump, and a test chamber which enabled checking different modes of stenosis. Rigid constrictions were simulated by means of axisymmetric blunt-ended annular plugs with moderate-to-severe area reductions. The pulsating stenosis consisted of a short starling resistor device operated by a pulsating external pressure which was synchronized by the pulsatile flow. It was found that the shape of the time-dependent pressure curve upstream of the stenosis was different in the case of rigid stenosis than in the pulsating one. Potential clinical applications of the work may relate to diagnosis of the type of stenosis in the congenital heart disease known as Tetralogy of Fallot.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):315-320. doi:10.1115/1.3138500.

A transport coefficient was measured for a range of oscillatory flow conditions in a branching network of tubes. Measurements were made both across the first generation of a three-generation network and the second generation of a four-generation network. The results for these two series of tests were similar, indicating that there was no significant effect due to the system boundaries. The results are cast in terms of an effective axial diffusion coefficient of the form

Deff = (ϰ + 0.50Vt1.66f0.94)cm2/s
where ϰ is the molecular diffusivity, Vt is the local stroke volume (cc), and f is the oscillation frequency (Hz). These results are compared to those obtained by other investigators in branching systems of similar geometry. At low frequency, this result is found to be in approximate agreement with the steady flow result of Scherer, et al. [15]. This expression differs from the oscillatory flow results of Tarbell, et al. [19] for liquids, primarily in terms of the effects of oscillation frequency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):321-330. doi:10.1115/1.3138501.

A new theoretical model supported by ultrastructural studies and high-spatial resolution temperature measurements is presented for surface tissue heat transfer in a two-part study. In this first paper, vascular casts of the rabbit thigh prepared by the tissue clearance method were serially sectioned parallel to the skin surface to determine the detailed variation of the vascular geometry as a function of tissue depth. Simple quantitative models of the basic vascular structures observed were then analyzed in terms of their characteristic thermal relaxation lengths and a new three-layer conceptual model proposed for surface tissue heat transfer. Fine wire temperature measurements with an 80-μm average diameter thermocouple junction and spatial increments of 20 μm between measurement sites have shown for the first time the detailed temperature fluctuations in the microvasculature and have confirmed the fundamental assumptions of the proposed three-layer model for the deep tissue, skeletal muscle and cutaneous layers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):331-341. doi:10.1115/1.3138502.

In this paper the conceptual three-layer representation of surface tissue heat transfer proposed in Weinbaum, Jiji and Lemons [I], is developed into a detailed quantitative model. This model takes into consideration the variation of the number density, size and flow velocity of the countercurrent arterio-venous vessels as a function of depth from the skin surface, the directionality of blood perfusion in the transverse vessel layer and the superficial shunting of blood to the cutaneous layer. A closed form analytic solution for the boundary value problem coupling the three layers is obtained. This solution is in terms of numerically evaluated integrals describing the detailed vascular geometry, a capillary bleed-off distribution function and parameters describing the shunting of blood to the cutaneous layer. Representative heat transfer results for typical physiological conditions are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):342-350. doi:10.1115/1.3138503.

A computational method has been developed to obtain numerical results in the stress analysis of adaptive elastic materials. The method is based on a 3-dimensional finite element model that can change geometry and material properties based on the local strain. The solution procedure is iterative; the model is updated in time steps based on the current remodeling to provide incremental remodeling predictions. The method provides a vehicle for examination of different continuum models and their corresponding parameters for strain-induced remodeling in long bone. Use of the method with simple models of theoretical interest is presented. Results show agreement with available analytical results as well as the importance of coupled remodeling effects not previously examined.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):351-356. doi:10.1115/1.3138504.

Steady flow within a uniform circular curved tube formed by two 90-deg elbows was studied as a function of ψ, the angle between the planes of curvature of the two elbows. Boundary layer separation was found at two locations. The sites of these separation zones were observed to be essentially independent of ψ while the Reynolds number at which separation was first detected was found to decrease as ψ increased. The relation between separation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is discussed. Secondary flow pattern was found to depend on ψ and in some instances on Reynolds number as well.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):360-363. doi:10.1115/1.3138506.

Effectiveness of the multi-segmented total-human-body models to predict accurately live human response depends heavily on the task of proper biomechanical description and simulation of the articulating joints. Determination of the damping properties in articulating joints is an important part of this task and constitutes the subject of this paper. A new method which is based on the damped oscillations of a body segment is introduced by considering the shoulder complex as an example. The numerical results for the angular damping coefficients at the shoulder complex are presented for forty different orientations of the arm with respect to torso. The angular damping coefficients exhibit a nonlinear behavior as a function of the arm orientation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):364-367. doi:10.1115/1.3138507.

Analytic determination of muscle force across human joints encounters an indeterminate problem. A new optimization approach, based on minimizing the upper bound of muscle stress, is introduced to obtain a unique solution. Mathematical and physiological justification of this new approach distinguishes it from previously described methods. A complex joint, the elbow, was studied. The results of muscle forces in resisting the elbow flexion moment were obtained and compared with electromyographic observation, as well as with solution from other optimizing techniques. The resultant humero-ulnar joint forces at various elbow joint positions are calculated. In normal daily activities, resultant joint forces of 0.3–0.5 times body weight are commonly encountered.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):368-375. doi:10.1115/1.3138508.

The planar motion of the human knee joint is modeled, involving the relative motion of the geometry of the contacting surface between the tibia and the femur. The pure gliding motion and the pure rolling motion are formulated including the holonomic and nonholonomic constraints that must be satisfied. A control strategy with two classes of inputs: muscle forces that stabilize and bring about the motion and the ligament forces that maintain the constraints is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of this control structure is demonstrated via digital computer simulations in the pure gliding motion and the pure rolling motion of the knee.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):376-383. doi:10.1115/1.3138509.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1984;106(4):384-393. doi:10.1115/1.3138510.

The water permeability (Lp ) of human granulocytes was measured for individual isolated cells with a novel, microscopic stopped-flow mixing system. Changes in volume were monitored as a cell was introduced suddently into an osmotically active solution. Permeability values were determined as a function of solution osmolality from the volume versus time curves for mixing into both hypotonic and hypertonic solutions within the range of 145 to 833 mOsm. The calculated reference permeability at 25°C was 1.15 μm/atm·min with an osmotic coefficient of 0.46 Osm/kg.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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