The application of pneumatic metrology to control dimensional accuracy on machined parts is based on the measurement of gas flow resistance through a restricted section formed by a jet orifice placed at a small distance away from a machined surface. The backpressure, which is sensed and indicated by a pressure gauge, is calibrated to measure dimensional variations. It has been found that in some typical industrial applications, the nozzles are subject to fouling, e.g., dirt and oil deposits accumulate on their frontal areas, thus requiring more frequent calibration of the apparatus for reliable service. In this paper, a numerical and experimental analysis of the flow behavior in the region between an injection nozzle and a flat surface is presented. The analysis is based on the steady-state axisymmetric flow of an incompressible fluid. The governing equations, coupled with the appropriate boundary conditions, are solved using the SIMPLER algorithm. Results have shown that for the standard nozzle geometry used in industrial applications, an annular low-pressure separated flow area was found to exist near the frontal surface of the nozzle. The existence of this area is believed to be the cause of the nozzle fouling problem. A study of various alternate nozzle geometries has shown that this low-pressure recirculation area can be eliminated quite readily. Well-designed chamfered, rounded, and reduced frontal area nozzles have all reduced or eliminated the separated recirculation flow area. It has been noted, however, that rounded nozzles may adversely cause a reduction in apparatus sensitivity.
Behavior of Radial Incompressible Flow in Pneumatic Dimensional Control Systems
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Fluids Engineering Division June 14, 2002; revised manuscript received Apr. 1, 2003. Associate Editor: E. W. Graf.
Roy , G., Vo-Ngoc , D., Nguyen, D. N., and Florent, P. (October 7, 2003). "Behavior of Radial Incompressible Flow in Pneumatic Dimensional Control Systems ." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. September 2003; 125(5): 843–850. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1598991
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