One of the crucial factors in determining the reliability of an electronic device is fatigue failure of the interconnecting solder joints. In most cases, large bulk samples are used to study the fatigue characteristics of the solder materials. Real solder joints often encountered in ball grid array (BGA) components have only been considered in limited investigations. In this study, a specialized sandwich BGA test vehicle with a 3 × 3 solder joint was connected to the two substrates. The alloys were tested at room temperature using an Instron micromechanical tester in both the stress-controlled and strain-controlled methods. The tests were performed at a constant strain rate. Four stresses and four strain levels of the solder alloy Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) were examined using organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel-immersion silver (ENIG) surface finishes. The work per cycle and plastic strain range was computed based on a systematic recording of the stress–strain (hysteresis) loops of each sample. A novel approach based on inelastic work is developed to calculate the fatigue life of a BGA assembled test vehicle. The results of the stress-controlled and strain-controlled tests indicated that the OSP surface finishes outperformed the ENIG surface finish. Regardless of the testing process and surface finish, the Coffin–Manson and Morrow energy models were acceptable for SAC305.