The objective of the present study was to measure dynamic chest deformations and compute chest velocity and viscous criterion during real world frontal impacts conducted on a horizontal sled. Four unembalmed human cadavers were restrained using a three-point belt restraint in the driver seat of a sled buck. Two chest bands (each with a 24 gauge capability) were placed on the thorax to record the temporal deformation patterns during impact. All tests were conducted at a velocity of approximately 50 kph. Biomechanical data were gathered digitally at a sampling rate of 12,500 Hz. Multiple rib fractures were identified in all specimens at autopsy. Analysis of approximately 800 temporal deformation contours of the thorax demonstrated regional differences. The overall mean maximum normalized chest deflections, maximum chest compression velocities, and peak viscous response variables ranged from 0.15 to 0.51, 1.79 to 4.87 m/s, and 0.15 to 1.95 m/s, respectively. These findings clearly illustrate the potential use of the chest band output to correlate injury with biomechanical variables and establish thoracic impact tolerance.
Thoracic Deformation and Velocity Analysis in Frontal Impact
Yoganandan, N., Morgan, R. M., Eppinger, R. H., Pintar, F. A., Skrade, D. A., and Sances, A., Jr. (February 1, 1995). "Thoracic Deformation and Velocity Analysis in Frontal Impact." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 1995; 117(1): 48–52. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2792269
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