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Research Papers

Machine Learning-Based Pre-Impact Fall Detection Model to Discriminate Various Types of Fall

[+] Author and Article Information
Tae Hyong Kim

Department of Biomechatronic Engineering,
College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering,
Sungkyunkwan University,
2066 Seoburo,
Jangangu,
Suwon, Gyeonggi 16419, South Korea
e-mail: sanctified@skku.edu

Ahnryul Choi

Department of Biomechatronic Engineering,
College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering,
Sungkyunkwan University,
2066 Seoburo,
Jangangu,
Suwon, Gyeonggi 16419, South Korea;
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
College of Medical Convergence,
Catholic Kwandong University,
24, Beomil-ro 579 beon-gill,
Gangneung, Gangwon 25601, South Korea
e-mail: achoi@cku.ac.kr

Hyun Mu Heo

Department of Biomechatronic Engineering,
College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering,
Sungkyunkwan University,
2066 Seoburo,
Jangangu,
Suwon, Gyeonggi 16419, South Korea
e-mail: hhmoo91@naver.com

Kyungran Kim

Agricultural Health and Safety Division,
Rural Development Administration,
300 Nongsaengmyeong-ro,
Wansan-gu,
Jeonju, Jeollabuk 54875, South Korea
e-mail: kimgr@korea.kr

Kyungsuk Lee

Agricultural Health and Safety Division,
Rural Development Administration,
300 Nongsaengmyeong-ro,
Wansan-gu,
Jeonju,
Jeollabuk 54875, South Korea
e-mail: kyungsuk9903@gmail.com

Joung Hwan Mun

Department of Biomechatronic Engineering,
College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering,
Sungkyunkwan University,
2066 Seoburo,
Jangangu,
Suwon, Gyeonggi 16419, South Korea
e-mail: jmun@skku.edu

1These authors made equal contributions to this work.

2Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received November 6, 2018; final manuscript received April 5, 2019; published online May 13, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Christian Puttlitz. This work was prepared while under employment by the Government of South Korea as part of the official duties of the author(s) indicated above, as such copyright is owned by that Government, which reserves its own copyright under national law.

J Biomech Eng 141(8), 081010 (May 13, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1483; doi: 10.1115/1.4043449 History: Received November 06, 2018; Revised April 05, 2019

Pre-impact fall detection can send alarm service faster to reduce long-lie conditions and decrease the risk of hospitalization. Detecting various types of fall to determine the impact site or direction prior to impact is important because it increases the chance of decreasing the incidence or severity of fall-related injuries. In this study, a robust pre-impact fall detection model was developed to classify various activities and falls as multiclass and its performance was compared with the performance of previous developed models. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. All subjects were asked to place an inertial measuring unit module by fixing on a belt near the left iliac crest to collect accelerometer data for each activity. Our novel proposed model consists of feature calculation and infinite latent feature selection (ILFS) algorithm, auto labeling of activities, and application of machine learning classifiers for discrete and continuous time series data. Nine machine-learning classifiers were applied to detect falls prior to impact and derive final detection results by sorting the classifier. Our model showed the highest classification accuracy. Results for the proposed model that could classify as multiclass showed significantly higher average classification accuracy of 99.57 ± 0.01% for discrete data-based classifiers and 99.84 ± 0.02% for continuous time series-based classifiers than previous models (p < 0.01). In the future, multiclass pre-impact fall detection models can be applied to fall protector devices by detecting various activities for sending alerts or immediate feedback reactions to prevent falls.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Custom-designed IMU sensor placed on the left anterior iliac crest of the pelvis of the subject. Tri-axial accelerometer data are sent and received from a Bluetooth module and receiver.

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Fig. 2

Experimental protocol of ten types of fall and 14 types of ADL results in 3062 datasets. N represents the number of subjects and n represents the number of trials for each activity.

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Fig. 3

Tri-axial accelerometer data of fall phase for slipping

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Fig. 4

Fall indicators. A total of 182 feature candidates were extracted within the window by calculating maximum, minimum, average, median, variance, skewness, and kurtosis of fall indicators from tri-axial accelerometer data for single frame.

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Fig. 5

Flow chart showing the proposed pre-impact fall detection model

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Fig. 6

The average classification accuracy of multiclass pre-impact fall detection model depending on the number of features

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Fig. 7

Overall performance of our two proposed multiclass pre-impact fall detection model using discrete data and continuous time-series data

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Fig. 8

Confusion matrix of our two our proposed multiclass pre-impact fall detection model. Bolded number in the confusion matrix represents each type of activity (1–10 are ADLs activities and 11–24 are different types of falls).

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