0
Research Papers

Relative Motion Between the Helmet and the Head in Football Impact Test

[+] Author and Article Information
Hamed Joodaki

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Center for Applied Biomechanics,
University of Virginia,
4040 Lewis and Clark Drive,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
e-mail: hj2vq@virginia.edu

Ann Bailey

Biocore LLC,
1621 Quail Run,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
e-mail: ABailey@biocorellc.com

David Lessley

Biocore LLC,
1621 Quail Run,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
e-mail: djl6j@virginia.edu

James Funk

Biocore LLC,
1621 Quail Run,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
e-mail: JFunk@biocorellc.com

Chris Sherwood

Biocore LLC,
1621 Quail Run,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
e-mail: CSherwood@biocorellc.com

Jeff Crandall

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Center for Applied Biomechanics,
University of Virginia,
4040 Lewis and Clark Drive,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
e-mail: jrc2h@virginia.edu

Manuscript received September 14, 2018; final manuscript received February 17, 2019; published online May 6, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Brittany Coats.

J Biomech Eng 141(8), 081006 (May 06, 2019) (16 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1410; doi: 10.1115/1.4043038 History: Received September 14, 2018; Revised February 17, 2019

Approximately 1.6–3.8 million sports-related traumatic brain injuries occur each year in the U.S. Researchers track the head motion using a variety of techniques to study the head injury biomechanics. To understand how helmets provide head protection, quantification of the relative motion between the head and the helmet is necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare helmet and head kinematics and quantify the relative motion of helmet with respect to head during experimental representations of on-field American football impact scenarios. Seven helmet-to-helmet impact configurations were simulated by propelling helmeted crash test dummies into each other. Head and helmet kinematics were measured with instrumentation and an optical motion capture system. The analysis of results, from 10 ms prior to the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact, showed that the helmets translated 12–41 mm and rotated up to 37 deg with respect to the head. The peak resultant linear acceleration of the helmet was about 2–5 times higher than the head. The peak resultant angular velocity of the helmet ranged from 37% less to 71% more than the head, depending on the impact conditions. The results of this study demonstrate that the kinematics of the head and the helmet are noticeably different and that the helmet rotates significantly with respect to the head during impacts. Therefore, capturing the helmet kinematics using a video motion tracking methodology is not sufficient to study the biomechanics of the head. Head motion must be measured independently of the helmet.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Langlois, J. A. , Rutland-Brown, W. , and Wald, M. M. , 2006, “ The Epidemiology and Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Brief Overview,” J. Head Trauma Rehabil., 21(5), pp. 375–378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Levy, M. L. , Ozgur, B. M. , Berry, C. , Aryan, H. E. , and Apuzzo, M. L. , 2004, “ Birth and Evolution of the Football Helmet,” Neurosurgery, 55(3), pp. 656–662. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hoshizaki, T. B. , and Brien, S. E. , 2004, “ The Science and Design of Head Protection in Sport,” Neurosurgery, 55(4), pp. 956–967. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hodgson, V. R. , 1975, “ National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment Football Helmet Certification Program,” Med. Sci. Sports, 7(3), pp. 225–232. [PubMed]
Rowson, S. , and Duma, S. M. , 2011, “ Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 39(8), pp. 2130–2140. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Holbourn, A. , 1943, “ Mechanics of Head Injuries,” Lancet, 242(6267), pp. 438–441. [CrossRef]
Takhounts, E. G. , Ridella, S. A. , Hasija, V. , Tannous, R. E. , Campbell, J. Q. , Malone, D. , Danelson, K. , Stitzel, J. , Rowson, S. , and Duma, S. , 2008, “ Investigation of Traumatic Brain Injuries Using the Next Generation of Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) Finite Element Head Model,” Stapp Car Crash J., 52, p. 1. [PubMed]
Higgens, L. S. , and Unterharnscheidt, F. , 1969, “ Pathomorphology of Experimental Head Injury Due to Rotational Acceleration,” Acta Neuropathol., 12(2), pp. 200–204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gennarelli, T. , Adams, J. , and Graham, D. , 1981, “ Acceleration Induced Head Injury in the Monkey—I: The Model, Its Mechanical and Physiological Correlates,” Experimental and Clinical Neuropathology, Springer, New York, pp. 23–25.
Takhounts, E. G. , Craig, M. J. , Moorhouse, K. , McFadden, J. , and Hasija, V. , 2013, “ Development of Brain Injury Criteria (BrIC),” SAE Paper No. 2013-22-0010.
Newman, J. A. , 1993, “ Biomechanics of Human Trauma: Head Protection,” Accidental Injury, Springer, New York, pp. 292–310.
Jadischke, R. , 2012, “Football Helmet Fitment and Its Effects on Helmet Performance,” Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.
Greenhill, D. A. , Navo, P. , Zhao, H. , Torg, J. , Comstock, R. D. , and Boden, B. P. , 2016, “ Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players,” Sports Health, 8(3), pp. 238–243. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Abreu, M. A. , Edwards, W. , and Spradley, B. D. , 2016, “ The War Against Concussions,” Sport J., pp. 1–12.
Halldin, P. , 2013, “ Helmet,” U.S. Patent No. 8,578,520.
Jadischke, R. , Viano, D. C. , Dau, N. , King, A. I. , and McCarthy, J. , 2013, “ On the Accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System Used in Football Helmets,” J. Biomech., 46(13), pp. 2310–2315. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pellman, E. J. , Viano, D. C. , Tucker, A. M. , Casson, I. R. , and Waeckerle, J. F. , 2003, “ Concussion in Professional Football: Reconstruction of Game Impacts and Injuries,” Neurosurgery, 53(4), pp. 799–814. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Manoogian, S. , McNeely, D. , Goforth, M. , Brolinson, G. , and Duma, S. , 2006, “ Head Acceleration Is Less Than 10 Percent of Helmet Acceleration During a Football Impact,” Biomed. Sci. Instrum., 42, pp. 383–388. [PubMed]
Collins, C. L. , McKenzie, L. B. , Ferketich, A. K. , Andridge, R. , Xiang, H. , and Comstock, R. D. , 2016, “ Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012–2013 Academic Years in the United States,” Am. J. Sports Med., 44(6), pp. 1382–1390. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Colello, R. J. , Colello, I. A. , AbdelHameid, D. , Cresswell, K. G. , Merchant, R. , and Beckett, E. , 2018, “ Making Football Safer: Assessing the Current National Football League Policy on the Type of Helmets Allowed on the Playing Field,” J. Neurotrauma, 35(11), pp. 1213–1223. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Trotta, A. , Zouzias, D. , De Bruyne, G. , and Annaidh, A. N. , 2018, “ The Importance of the Scalp in Head Impact Kinematics,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 46(6), pp. 831–840. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Newman, J. A. , Beusenberg, M. C. , Shewchenko, N. , Withnall, C. , and Fournier, E. , 2005, “ Verification of Biomechanical Methods Employed in a Comprehensive Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and the Effectiveness of American Football Helmets,” J. Biomech., 38(7), pp. 1469–1481. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pellman, E. J. , Viano, D. C. , Withnall, C. , Shewchenko, N. , Bir, C. A. , and Halstead, P. D. , 2006, “ Concussion in Professional Football: Helmet Testing to Assess Impact Performance—Part 11,” Neurosurgery, 58(1), pp. 78–95. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rowson, S. , Beckwith, J. G. , Chu, J. J. , Leonard, D. S. , Greenwald, R. M. , and Duma, S. M. , 2011, “ A Six Degree of Freedom Head Acceleration Measurement Device for Use in Football,” J. Appl. Biomech., 27(1), pp. 8–14. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rowson, S. , Chu, J. , Beckwith, J. , Greenwald, R. , Stitzel, J. , Kimpara, H. , and Duma, S. , 2007, “ Six Degree of Freedom Head Acceleration Measurements in Football Players,” 35th International Workshop on Injury Biomechanics Research, San Diego, CA, Oct., pp. 85–92.
Beckwith, J. G. , Greenwald, R. M. , and Chu, J. J. , 2012, “ Measuring Head Kinematics in Football: Correlation Between the Head Impact Telemetry System and Hybrid III Headform,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(1), pp. 237–248. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Viano, D. C. , Withnall, C. , and Halstead, D. , 2012, “ Impact Performance of Modern Football Helmets,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(1), pp. 160–174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lessley, D. , Shaw, G. , Riley, P. , Forman, J. , and Crandall, J. , 2011, “ Assessment and Validation of a Methodology for Measuring Anatomical Kinematics of Restrained Occupants During Motor Vehicle Collisions,” J. Biosens. Bioelectron., S, p. 1.
Bailey, A. , Funk, J. , Lessley, D. , Sherwood, C. , Crandall, J. , Neale, W. , and Rose, N. , 2018, “ Validation of a Videogrammetry Technique for Analysing American Football Helmet Kinematics,” Sports Biomech., (epub).
Kang, Y.-S. , Moorhouse, K. , and Bolte, J. H. , 2011, “ Measurement of Six Degrees of Freedom Head Kinematics in Impact Conditions Employing Six Accelerometers and Three Angular Rate Sensors (6aω Configuration),” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 133(11), p. 111007. [CrossRef]
SAE, 1995, “ Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice: J211-1: Instrumentation for Impact Test—Part 1—Electronic Instrumentation,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
Beard, D. A. , and Schlick, T. , 2003, “ Unbiased Rotational Moves for Rigid-Body Dynamics,” Biophys. J., 85(5), pp. 2973–2976. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Roetenberg, D. , Luinge, H. , and Slycke, P. , 2009, “ Xsens MVN: Full 6DOF Human Motion Tracking Using Miniature Inertial Sensors,” Xsens Motion Technologies BV, Enschede, The Netherlands, Report No. 1
Lessley, D. , Shaw, G. , Ash, J. , Crandall, J. , Liu, L. , Horibe, N. , Tamura, I. , Komizo, T. , Ishiyama, T. , and Holcombe, S. , 2014, “ A Methodology for Assessing Intrasegmental Kinematics of the Whole Human Spine During Impacts,” Int. J. Automot. Eng., 5(1), pp. 1–6.
Funk, J. R. , Quesada, R. E. , Miles, A. M. , and Crandall, J. R. , 2018, “ Inertial Properties of Football Helmets,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 140(6), p. 064501. [CrossRef]
Dibb, A. T. , Nightingale, R. W. , Chancey, V. C. , and Fronheiser, L. E. , 2006, “ Comparative Structural Neck Responses of the THOR-NT, Hybrid III, and Human in Combined Tension-Bending and Pure Bending,” Stapp Car Crash J., 50, p. 567. [PubMed]
Piziali, R. , Hopper, R. , Girvan, D. , and Merala, R. , 1998, “ Injury Causation in Rollover Accidents and the Biofidelity of Hybrid III Data in Rollover Tests,” SAE Paper No. 980362.
Rowson, S. , Duma, S. M. , Beckwith, J. G. , Chu, J. J. , Greenwald, R. M. , Crisco, J. J. , Brolinson, P. G. , Duhaime, A.-C. , McAllister, T. W. , and Maerlender, A. C. , 2012, “ Rotational Head Kinematics in Football Impacts: An Injury Risk Function for Concussion,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40(1), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rowson, S. , Brolinson, G. , Goforth, M. , Dietter, D. , and Duma, S. , 2009, “ Linear and Angular Head Acceleration Measurements in Collegiate Football,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(6), p. 061016. [CrossRef]
Duma, S. M. , Manoogian, S. J. , Bussone, W. R. , Brolinson, P. G. , Goforth, M. W. , Donnenwerth, J. J. , Greenwald, R. M. , Chu, J. J. , and Crisco, J. J. , 2005, “ Analysis of Real-Time Head Accelerations in Collegiate Football Players,” Clin. J. Sport Med., 15(1), pp. 3–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pellman, E. J. , Viano, D. C. , Tucker, A. M. , and Casson, I. R. , 2003, “ Concussion in Professional Football: Location and Direction of Helmet Impacts—Part 2,” Neurosurgery, 53(6), pp. 1328–1341. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Campbell, K. R. , Warnica, M. J. , Levine, I. C. , Brooks, J. S. , Laing, A. C. , Burkhart, T. A. , and Dickey, J. P. , 2016, “ Laboratory Evaluation of the gForce Tracker™, a Head Impact Kinematic Measuring Device for Use in Football Helmets,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 44(4), pp. 1246–1256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brainard, L. L. , Beckwith, J. G. , Chu, J. J. , Crisco, J. J. , McAllister, T. W. , Duhaime, A.-C. , Maerlender, A. C. , and Greenwald, R. M. , 2012, “ Gender Differences in Head Impacts Sustained by Collegiate Ice Hockey Players,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 44(2), p. 297. [CrossRef]
Allison, M. A. , Kang, Y. S. , Bolte, J. H. , Maltese, M. R. , and Arbogast, K. B. , 2014, “ Validation of a Helmet-Based System to Measure Head Impact Biomechanics in Ice Hockey,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 46(1), pp. 115–123. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Plan view of impact configurations for tests A–G and the torso and neck angle of all tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Location of the helmet sensors for the Riddell helmet (ATD 1, left) and the Schutt helmet (ATD 2, right). These sensors were intentionally mounted away from impact sites to avoid capturing localized vibrations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setting. Electrically driven sled systems, motion capture system, and global (field) and head CG local coordinate systems are shown. The origin and the orientation of helmet local coordinate system were initially aligned with those of the head.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Definition of x-rotation (θx), y-rotation (θy), and z-rotation (θz) of the helmet with respect to the head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of the time histories of resultant linear acceleration (a) and angular velocity (b) of the helmet and head at their local coordinate system origin for ATD 1 in test D. The left and right vertical lines denote the beginning of impact (t = 0) and the end of contact (t = 30 ms in this test), respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The percent difference ((ωh − ωd)/ωd × 100) between helmet and head peak resultant angular velocity, where ωh and ωd refer to the peak resultant angular velocity of helmet and dummy's head, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The time histories of displacement (a) and rotation (b) of helmet with respect to the head for ATD 1 in test D. The red vertical lines denote the beginning of impact (t = 0). The left and right vertical lines denote the beginning of impact (t = 0) and the end of contact (t = 30 ms in this test), respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The peak displacement of the helmet with respect to the head. The displacements in the xX), yY), and zZ) directions of the head local coordinate system and the resultant (ΔR) displacement are shown. The head kinematics were obtained from the head instrumentation, while the helmet kinematics were measured by the instrumentation and the optical motion capture system.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The peak rotation of helmet with respect to head. Head kinematics were obtained from the head instrumentation, while the helmet kinematics were obtained from helmet instrumentation and the optical motion capture system.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test A. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test B. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test C. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test D. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test E. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test F. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Captures from the high-speed video cameras from 10 ms before the helmet contact to 20 ms after the loss of helmet contact for test G. ATD 1 and ATD 2 can be seen in the right-hand side and left-hand side, respectively.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In