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Research Papers

The Effects of Dynamic Loading on Bone Fracture Healing Under Ilizarov Circular Fixators

[+] Author and Article Information
Ganesharajah Ganadhiepan

Department of Infrastructure Engineering,
The University of Melbourne,
Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
e-mail: ganadhiepang@unimelb.edu.au

Lihai Zhang, Saeed Miramini, Priyan Mendis

Department of Infrastructure Engineering,
The University of Melbourne,
Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia

Minoo Patel

Epworth Hospital Richmond,
Victoria 3121, Australia

Peter Ebeling

Department of Medicine,
Monash University,
Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia

Yulong Wang

Rehabilitation Centre,
The First Affiliated Hospital,
Shenzhen University,
Guangdong 518060, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 23, 2018; final manuscript received February 23, 2019; published online March 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Anton E. Bowden.

J Biomech Eng 141(5), 051005 (Mar 25, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1295; doi: 10.1115/1.4043037 History: Received June 23, 2018; Revised February 23, 2019

Early weight bearing appears to enhance bone fracture healing under Ilizarov circular fixators (ICFs). However, the role of early weight bearing in the healing process remains unclear. This study aims to provide insights into the effects of early weight bearing on healing of bone fractures stabilized with ICFs, with the aid of mathematical modeling. A computational model of fracture site was developed using poro-elastic formulation to simulate the transport of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteogenic growth factor (OGF), and chondrogenic growth factor (CGF) and MSC differentiation during the early stage of healing, under various combinations of fracture gap sizes (GS), ICF wire pretension forces, and axial loads. 1 h of physiologically relevant cyclic axial loading followed by 23 h of rest in the post-inflammation phase (i.e., callus with granulation tissue) was simulated. The results show that physiologically relevant dynamic loading could significantly enhance cell and growth factor concentrations in the fracture site in a time and spatially dependent manner. 1 h cyclic loading (axial load with amplitude, PA, of 200 N at 1 Hz) increased the content of chondrocytes up to 37% (in all zones of callus), CGF up to 28% (in endosteal and periosteal callus) and OGF up to 50% (in endosteal and cortical callus) by the end of the 24 h period simulated. This suggests that the synergistic effect of dynamic loading-induced advective transport and mechanical stimuli due to early weight bearing is likely to enhance secondary healing. Furthermore, the study suggests that relatively higher PA values or lower ICF wire pretension forces or smaller GS could result in increased chondrocyte and GF content within the callus.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing the methodology proposed in this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram showing boundary conditions of bone cells and growth factors. cbcm= cbcfb=2×104 cells / ml and gbcb=gbcc = 2 μg/ml as per [26]. cbcb=1×106cells / ml as per [27].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Concentrations of (a) MSC (b) fibroblasts (c) chondrocytes (d) osteoblasts (e) OGF, and (f) CGF within the callus under G5Control(free diffusion) and G5(200,90) cases after 24 h: (a) MSC (× 106 cells ml−1), (b) fibroblast (× 106 cells ml−1), (c) chondrocytes (× 106 cells ml−1), (d) osteoblasts (× 106 cells ml−1), (e) OGF (× 100 ng ml−1), and (f) CGF (× 100 ng ml−1) within the callus under G5Control(free diffusion) and G5(200,90) cases after 24 h

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Percent change of cells and growth factors within the endosteal zone of the callus (zone 1) under each case at the end of 24 h (1 h cyclic axial loading + 23 h of rest) in comparison with the control (free diffusion) case for (a) GS = 5 mm and (b) GS = 7 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Percent change of cells and growth factors in cortical zone of the callus (zone 2) under each case at the end of 24 h (1 h cyclic axial loading + 23 h of rest) in comparison with the control (free diffusion). (a) GS = 5 mm and (b) GS = 7 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Percent change of cells and growth factors in periosteal zone of the callus (zone 3) under each case at the end of 24 h (1 h cyclic axial loading + 23 h of rest) in comparison with the control (free diffusion): (a) GS = 5 mm and (b) GS = 7 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Percentage change of (a) MSC, (b) fibroblasts, (c) chondrocytes, (d) osteoblasts, (e) OGF, and (f) CGF within the callus under case G5(200,90) during the 24 h period simulated (1 h cyclic axial loading followed by 23 h of rest) in comparison with the control case G5Control(free diffusion)

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