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Special Section: Spotlight on the Future–Imaging and Biomechanical Engineering

Differential Effects of Isoproterenol on Regional Myocardial Mechanics in Rat Using Three-Dimensional Cine DENSE Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhan-Qiu Liu, Dara Singh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506

David K. Powell

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506

Charles S. Chung

Department of Physiology,
Wayne State University,
Detroit, MI 48202;
Department of Physiology,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506

Kenneth S. Campbell

Department of Physiology,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506

Jonathan F. Wenk

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506;
Department of Surgery,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506
e-mail: wenk@engr.uky.edu

1These authors contributed equally to this work.

2Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 13, 2018; final manuscript received July 18, 2018; published online April 22, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Keefe B. Manning.

J Biomech Eng 141(6), 060904 (Apr 22, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1025; doi: 10.1115/1.4041042 History: Received January 13, 2018; Revised July 18, 2018

The present study assessed the acute effects of isoproterenol on left ventricular (LV) mechanics in healthy rats with the hypothesis that β-adrenergic stimulation influences the mechanics of different myocardial regions of the LV wall in different ways. To accomplish this, magnetic resonance images were obtained in the LV of healthy rats with or without isoproterenol infusion. The LV contours were divided into basal, midventricular, and apical regions. Additionally, the midventricular myocardium was divided into three transmural layers with each layer partitioned into four segments (i.e., septal, inferior, lateral, and anterior). Peak systolic strains and torsion were quantified for each region. Isoproterenol significantly increased peak systolic radial strain and circumferential-longitudinal (CL) shear strain, as well as ventricular torsion, throughout the basal, midventricle, and apical regions. In the midventricle, isoproterenol significantly increased peak systolic radial strain, and induced significant increases in peak systolic circumferential strain and longitudinal strain in the septum. Isoproterenol consistently increased peak systolic CL shear strain in all midventricular segments. Ventricular torsion was significantly increased in nearly all segments except the inferior subendocardium. The effects of isoproterenol on LV systolic mechanics (i.e., three-dimensional (3D) strains and torsion) in healthy rats depend on the region. This region dependency is also strain component-specific. These results provide insight into the regional response of LV mechanics to β-adrenergic stimulation in rats and could act as a baseline for future studies on subclinical abnormalities associated with the inotropic response in heart disease.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Representative end-systolic 3D cine DENSE CMR images and strain maps from one midventricular short-axis slice of a rat left ventricle. ((a)–(c)) Representative images from an isoproterenol-treated rat, including a magnitude-reconstructed image (a), original phase image encoded for x- (b), unwrapped phase image encoded for x- (c), and vector field of displacement (d); ((e)–(g)) example of Ecc (e), Ell (f), and Ecl (g) strains; the top panels show strains from an untreated rat (CTL) and the bottom panels show strains from an isoproterenol-treated rat (ISO). Note regarding panel (e): S = septum, I = inferior, L = lateral, and A = anterior.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effects of isoproterenol on peak systolic Ecc strains in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic Ecc values were averaged over each segment of subendocardium ((a), Endo), midmyocardium ((b), Mid), and subepicardium ((c), Epi). The text above each figure shows p-values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effects of isoproterenol on peak systolic Ell strains in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic Ell values were averaged over each segment of subendocardium ((a), Endo), midmyocardium ((b), Mid), and subepicardium ((c), Epi). The text above each figure shows p values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effects of isoproterenol on peak systolic Ecl strains in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic Ecl values were averaged over each segment of subendocardium ((a), Endo), midmyocardium ((b), Mid), and subepicardium ((c), Epi). The text above each figure shows p values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effects of isoproterenol on peak systolic Err strains in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic Err values were averaged over each myocardial segment. The text above each figure shows p values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effects of isoproterenol on peak systolic Erl strains in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic Erl values were averaged over each myocardial segment. The text above each figure shows p values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effects of isoproterenol on peak systolic Erc strains in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic Erc values were averaged over each myocardial segment. The text above each figure shows p values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effects of isoproterenol on peak ventricular torsion in different myocardial regions of midventricle. Peak systolic CL shear angles were averaged over each segment of subendocardium ((a), Endo), midmyocardium ((b), Mid), and subepicardium ((c), Epi). The text above each figure shows p values for the main statistical effects. Significant differences between CTL (n = 10) and ISO (n = 9) groups, tested separately for each segment, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05). Significant differences among the four segments, tested separately for untreated (CTL) and isoproterenol-treated (ISO) rats, are listed in the inset box.

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