0
Research Papers

Design of Semirigid Wearable Devices Based on Skin Strain Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Barrios-Muriel

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Energetics and Materials,
University of Extremadura,
Badajoz 06006, Spain
e-mail: jorgebarrios@unex.es

F. Romero Sánchez

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Energetics and Materials,
University of Extremadura,
Badajoz 06006, Spain
e-mail: fromsan@unex.es

F. J. Alonso

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Energetics and Materials,
University of Extremadura,
Badajoz 06006, Spain
e-mail: fjas@unex.es

D. R. Salgado

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Energetics and Materials,
University of Extremadura,
Badajoz 06006, Spain
e-mail: drs@unex.es

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 8, 2018; final manuscript received May 7, 2018; published online December 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: James C. Iatridis.

J Biomech Eng 141(2), 021008 (Dec 12, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4040250 History: Received January 08, 2018; Revised May 07, 2018

Nowadays, both usability and comfort play a key role in the development of medical and wearable products. When designing any device that is in contact with the human body, the mechanical behavior of the embraced soft tissue must be known. The unavoidable displacement of the soft tissue during motion may lead to discomfort and, thus, the removal of the wearable product. This paper presents a new methodology to design and test a wearable device based on the measurement of the dynamic skin strain field. Furthermore, from this field, the anatomical lines with minimum strain (lines of nonextension (LoNEs)) are calculated to design the structural parts of the wearable device. With this new criterion, the resulting product is not only optimized to reduce the friction in skin-device interface, but fully personalized to the patient's morphology and motion. The methodology is applied to the design of an ankle-foot wearable orthosis for subjects with ankle dorsiflexors muscles weakness due to nervous system disorders. The results confirm that the use of LoNEs may benefit the design of products with a high interaction with the skin.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Design , Skin , Orthotics
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Herr, H. , 2009, “ Exoskeletons and Orthoses: Classification, Design Challenges and Future Directions,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., 6(1), p. 21. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Agache, P. , Monneur, C. , Leveque, J. , and De Rigal, J. , 1980, “ Mechanical Properties and Young's Modulus of Human Skin In Vivo,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., 269(3), pp. 221–232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Geerligs, M. , Van Breemen, L. , Peters, G. , Ackermans, P. , Baaijens, F. , and Oomens, C. , 2011, “ In Vitro Indentation to Determine the Mechanical Properties of Epidermis,” J. Biomech., 44(6), pp. 1176–1181. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hendriks, F. , Brokken, D. , Oomens, C. , Bader, D. , and Baaijens, F. , 2006, “ The Relative Contributions of Different Skin Layers to the Mechanical Behavior of Human Skin In Vivo Using Suction Experiments,” Med. Eng. Phys., 28(3), pp. 259–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Annaidh, A. N. , Bruyère, K. , Destrade, M. , Gilchrist, M. D. , and Otténio, M. , 2012, “ Characterization of the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Excised Human Skin,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 5(1), pp. 139–148. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wehner, M. , Quinlivan, B. , Aubin, P. M. , Martinez-Villalpando, E. , Baumann, M. , Stirling, L. , Holt, K. , Wood, R. , and Walsh, C. , 2013, “ A Lightweight Soft Exosuit for Gait Assistance,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6–10, pp. 3362–3369.
Kwiatkowska, M. , Franklin, S. , Hendriks, C. , and Kwiatkowski, K. , 2009, “ Friction and Deformation Behaviour of Human Skin,” Wear, 267(5–8), pp. 1264–1273. [CrossRef]
Pons, J. L. , 2008, Wearable Robots: Biomechatronic Exoskeletons, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Gemperle, F. , Kasabach, C. , Stivoric, J. , Bauer, M. , and Martin, R. , 1998, “ Design for Wearability,” Digest of Papers, Second International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 19–20, pp. 116–122.
Domingues, A. , Marreiros, S. , Martins, J. , Silva, M. , and Newman, D. , 2012, “ Analysis of Ankle Skin Deformation for the Development of Soft Orthotics,” J. Biomech., 45(Suppl. 1), p. S203. [CrossRef]
Seo, H. , Kim, S.-J. , Cordier, F. , Choi, J. , and Hong, K. , 2013, “ Estimating Dynamic Skin Tension Lines In Vivo Using 3D Scans,” Comput.-Aided Des., 45(2), pp. 551–555. [CrossRef]
Bethke, K. , 2005, “ The Second Skin Approach: Skin Strain Field Analysis and Mechanical Counter Pressure Prototyping for Advanced Spacesuit Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Wolfrum, N. , Newman, D. , and Bethke, K. , 2006, “ An Automatic Procedure to Map the Skin Strain Field With Application to Advanced Locomotion Space Suit Design,” J. Biomech., 39(Suppl. 1), p. S393. [CrossRef]
Marreiros Pereira, S. , 2010, “ Skin Strain Field Analysis of the Human Ankle Joint,” Relation, 2, pp. 2–7. https://fenix.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/downloadFile/395142220612/Artigo%20-%20Tese%20(57274).pdf
Yoneyama, S. , 2010, “ Computing Strain Distributions From Measured Displacements on a Three-Dimensional Surface,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., 10(SI), pp. s113–s118.
Marecki, A. T. , 2012, “ Skin Strain Analysis Software for the Study of Human Skin Deformation,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/74986
Wessendorf, A. M. , and Newman, D. J. , 2012, “ Dynamic Understanding of Human-Skin Movement and Strain-Field Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 59(12), pp. 3432–3438. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Choi, J. , and Hong, K. , 2015, “ 3D Skin Length Deformation of Lower Body During Knee Joint Flexion for the Practical Application of Functional Sportswear,” Appl. Ergon., 48, pp. 186–201. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Iberall, A. S. , 1964, “ The Use of Lines of Nonextension to Improve Mobility in Full-Pressure Suits. AMRL-TR-64-118,” Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories (6570th), p. 1.
Newman, D. , Hoffman, J. , Bethke, K. , Blaya, J. , Carr, C. , and Pitts, B. , 2005, “ Astronaut Bio-Suit System for Exploration Class Missions,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, NIAC Phase II Final Report.
Bethke, K. , Newman, D. J. , and Radovitzky, R. , 2005, “ Creating a Skin Strain Field Map With Application to Advanced Locomotion Spacesuit Design,” 20th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, Cleveland, OH, July 31–Aug. 5. https://isbweb.org/images/conf/2005/abstracts/0952.pdf
Obropta, E. W. , and Newman, D. J. , 2015, “ A Comparison of Human Skin Strain Fields of the Elbow Joint for Mechanical Counter Pressure Space Suit Development,” IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, Mar. 7–14, pp. 1–9.
Lin, B. , Moerman, K. M. , McMahan, C. G. , Pasch, K. A. , and Herr, H. M. , 2017, “ Low-Cost Methodology for Skin Strain Measurement of a Flexed Biological Limb,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 64(12), pp. 2750–2759.
Silva, P. C. , Silva, M. T. , and Martins, J. M. , 2010, “ Evaluation of the Contact Forces Developed in the Lower Limb/Orthosis Interface for Comfort Design,” Multibody Syst. Dyn., 24(3), pp. 367–388. [CrossRef]
Tran, H. , Charleux, F. , Rachik, M. , Ehrlacher, A. , and Ho Ba Tho, M. , 2007, “ In Vivo Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of Human Skin Derived From MRI and Indentation Techniques,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 10(6), pp. 401–407. [CrossRef]
Hendriks, F. M. , Brokken, D. , van Eemeren, J. T. , Oomens, C. W. , Baaijens, F. P. , and Horsten, J. B. , 2003, “ A Numerical-Experimental Method to Characterize the Non-Linear Mechanical Behaviour of Human Skin,” Skin Res. Technol., 9(3), pp. 274–283. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Van den Herrewegen, I. , Cuppens, K. , Broeckx, M. , Barisch-Fritz, B. , Vander Sloten, J. , Leardini, A. , and Peeraer, L. , 2014, “ Dynamic 3D Scanning as a Markerless Method to Calculate Multi-Segment Foot Kinematics During Stance Phase: Methodology and First Application,” J. Biomech., 47(11), pp. 2531–2539. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Thabet, A. K. , Trucco, E. , Salvi, J. , Wang, W. , and Abboud, R. J. , 2014, “ Dynamic 3D Shape of the Plantar Surface of the Foot Using Coded Structured Light: A Technical Report,” J. Foot Ankle Res., 7(1), pp. 1–12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3903035/ [PubMed]
Kimura, M. , Mochimaru, M. , and Kanade, T. , 2008, “ Measurement of 3D Foot Shape Deformation in Motion,” Fifth ACM/IEEE International Workshop on Projector Camera Systems, Bali Way, CA, Aug. 20, p. 10.
Evans, S. L. , and Holt, C. A. , 2009, “ Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Human Skin In Vivo Using Digital Image Correlation and Finite Element Modelling,” J. Strain Anal. Eng., 44(5), pp. 337–345. [CrossRef]
Mahmud, J. , Evans, S. , and Holt, C. , 2010, “ An Innovative Application of a Small-Scale Motion Analysis Technique to Quantify Human Skin Deformation In Vivo,” J. Biomech., 43(5), pp. 1002–1006. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pailler-Mattei, C. , Bec, S. , and Zahouani, H. , 2008, “ In Vivo Measurements of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of Human Skin by Indentation Tests,” Med. Eng. Phys., 30(5), pp. 599–606. [PubMed]
Lim, K. , Chew, C. , Chen, P. , Jeyapalina, S. , Ho, H. , Rappel, J. , and Lim, B. , 2008, “ New Extensometer to Measure In Vivo Uniaxial Mechanical Properties of Human Skin,” J. Biomech., 41(5), pp. 931–936. [PubMed]
Obropta, E. W. , 2015, “ On the Deformation of Human Skin for Mechanical Counter Pressure Space Suit Development,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/98588
Miura, N. , Arikawa, S. , Yoneyama, S. , Koike, M. , Murakami, M. , and Tanno, O. , 2012, “ Digital Image Correlation Strain Analysis for the Study of Wrinkle Formation on Facial Skin,” J. Solid Mech. Mater. Eng., 6(6), pp. 545–554.
Staloff, I. A. , Guan, E. , Katz, S. , Rafailovitch, M. , Sokolov, A. , and Sokolov, S. , 2008, “ An In Vivo Study of the Mechanical Properties of Facial Skin and Influence of Aging Using Digital Image Speckle Correlation,” Skin Res. Technol., 14(2), pp. 127–134. [PubMed]
Mahmud, J. , Evans, S. , and Holt, C. , 2012, “ An Innovative Tool to Measure Human Skin Strain Distribution In Vivo Using Motion Capture and Delaunay Mesh,” J. Mech., 28(2), pp. 309–317.
Domingues, A. R. , Marreiros, S. P. , Martins, J. M. , Silva, M. T. , and Newman, D. J. , 2011, “ Skin Strain Field Analysis of the Human Ankle Joint,” 4 °Congresso Nacional De Biomecânica (CNB2011), pp. 1–10.
Barrios-Muriel, J. , Sánchez, A. , Javier, F. , Salgado, D. R. , and Romero-Sánchez, F. , 2017, “ A New Methodology to Identify Minimum Strain Anatomical Lines Based on 3-D Digital Image Correlation,” Mech. Sci., 8(2), pp. 337–347.
Luo, P. , Chao, Y. , Sutton, M. , and Peters, W.-H. , 1993, “ Accurate Measurement of Three-Dimensional Deformations in Deformable and Rigid Bodies Using Computer Vision,” Exp. Mech., 33(2), pp. 123–132.
Tang, Z. , Liang, J. , Xiao, Z. , and Guo, C. , 2012, “ Large Deformation Measurement Scheme for 3D Digital Image Correlation Method,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 50(2), pp. 122–130.
Abdel-Aziz, Y. , 1971, “ Direct Linear Transformation Into Object Space Coordinates in Close-Range Photogrammetry,” Symposium on Close-Range Photogrammetry, Urbana-Champaign, IL, pp. 1–18.
Hatze, H. , 1988, “ High-Precision Three-Dimensional Photogrammetric Calibration and Object Space Reconstruction Using a Modified DLT-Approach,” J. Biomech., 21(7), pp. 533–538. [PubMed]
Genovese, K. , Lee, Y. , and Humphrey, J. , 2011, “ Novel Optical System for In Vitro Quantification of Full Surface Strain Fields in Small Arteries—I: Theory and Design,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 14(3), pp. 213–225.
Pan, B. , Xie, H. , Guo, Z. , and Hua, T. , 2007, “ Full-Field Strain Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional Savitzky–Golay Digital Differentiator in Digital Image Correlation,” Opt. Eng., 46(3), p. 033601.
Pan, B. , Xie, H. , and Wang, Z. , 2010, “ Equivalence of Digital Image Correlation Criteria for Pattern Matching,” Appl. Opt., 49(28), pp. 5501–5509. [PubMed]
Tang, Z.-Z. , Liang, J. , Xiao, Z.-Z. , Guo, C. , and Hu, H. , 2010, “ Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation System for Deformation Measurement in Experimental Mechanics,” Opt. Eng., 49(10), p. 103601.
Quan, C. , Tay, C. J. , Sun, W. , and He, X. , 2008, “ Determination of Three-Dimensional Displacement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation,” Appl. Opt., 47(4), pp. 583–593. [PubMed]
Yoneyama, S. , 2011, “ Smoothing Measured Displacements and Computing Strains Utilising Finite Element Method,” Strain, 47(S2), pp. 258–266.
Begonia, M. , Dallas, M. , Johnson, M. L. , and Thiagarajan, G. , 2017, “ Comparison of Strain Measurement in the Mouse Forearm Using Subject-Specific Finite Element Models, Strain Gaging, and Digital Image Correlation,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol., 16(4), pp. 1243–1253. [PubMed]
Bae, S.-H. , and Choi, B. K. , 2002, “ NURBS Surface Fitting Using Orthogonal Coordinate Transform for Rapid Product Development,” Comput.-Aided Des., 34(10), pp. 683–690.
Ye, X. , Liu, H. , Chen, L. , Chen, Z. , Pan, X. , and Zhang, S. , 2008, “ Reverse Innovative Design—An Integrated Product Design Methodology,” Comput.-Aided Des., 40(7), pp. 812–827.
Concheiro, R. , Amor, M. , Padrón, E. J. , and Doggett, M. , 2014, “ Interactive Rendering of NURBS Surfaces,” Comput.-Aided Des., 56, pp. 34–44.
Mavroidis, C. , Ranky, R. G. , Sivak, M. L. , Patritti, B. L. , DiPisa, J. , Caddle, A. , Gilhooly, K. , Govoni, L. , Sivak, S. , Lancia, M. , Drillio, R. , and Bonato, P. , 2011, “ Patient Specific Ankle-Foot Orthoses Using Rapid Prototyping,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., 8(1), p. 1. [PubMed]
Schrank, E. S. , Hitch, L. , Wallace, K. , Moore, R. , and Stanhope, S. J. , 2013, “ Assessment of a Virtual Functional Prototyping Process for the Rapid Manufacture of Passive-Dynamic Ankle-Foot Orthoses,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 135(10), p. 101011.
Palousek, D. , Rosicky, J. , Koutny, D. , Stoklásek, P. , and Navrat, T. , 2014, “ Pilot Study of the Wrist Orthosis Design Process,” Rapid Prototyping J., 20(1), pp. 27–32.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the proposed methodology of design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temporal and cameras match process used in 3D-DIC algorithm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Skin strain field (exx, eyy, and exy) and principal strain (λI and λII) in different phases of stance of human gait

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Conceptual representation of LoNEs with finite strain ellipse and Mohr's circle. The circle represents the initial (undeformed) shape, the ellipse the deformed shape, and the lines the principal strain directions. (b) Example of representation of interpolation LoNEs between direction of nonextension. Adapted from Ref. [34]. (c) Example of LoNEs at ankle-foot complex during human gait.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Different views of virtual prototype of hybrid model, design of outer cover, design of inner frame, and assembly of both pieces and (b) new AFO design manufacture using 3D printing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Lines of Nonextension and Principal strains directions from medial and lateral view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) The export of the anatomical reference of LoNEs to cad environment. (b) B-spline and grid of control points, NURBS based on B-splines of structural parts of orthosis and last, the cad model with a certain thickness to create the final orthoses model.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In