Research Papers

Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Control Mechanisms of Two-Wheeled Wheelchair

[+] Author and Article Information
N. M. Abdul Ghani

Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Universiti Malaysia Pahang,
Pekan Campus,
Pekan 26600, Malaysia
e-mail: normaniha.ghani@gmail.com

M. O. Tokhi

Department of Automatic Control
and System Engineering,
University of Sheffield,
Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
e-mail: o.tokhi@sheffield.ac.uk

Manuscript received September 13, 2015; final manuscript received February 10, 2016; published online March 7, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Pasquale Vena.

J Biomech Eng 138(4), 041007 (Mar 07, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: BIO-15-1451; doi: 10.1115/1.4032800 History: Received September 13, 2015; Revised February 10, 2016

This paper presents a mechanism for standing and sitting transformation of a wheelchair using a two-wheeled inverted pendulum concept with reduced torque requirement, in simulation studies. The motivation of this work is to design a compact standing mechanism to help an elderly/disabled person with functional limitation in lower extremities to maneuver in small and confined spaces and enable them to perform standard daily life routines independently. The wheelchair system at the upright standing position is tested with different travel distances, and the challenge is to control both sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit operations in a stable manner using flexible-joint humanoid. An additional spring/damping element is incorporated at each wheel to provide a comfortable ride for the user especially during stand-to-sit transformation task. A PD-fuzzy control with modular structure is implemented, and the performance of the system is observed through visual nastran 4d (vn4d) visualization software and simulation in matlab. The stand-to-sit performance tests have shown more than 38% reduction in tilt and back seat angles fluctuation in linear travel motion using a suspension system, while the initial tilt torque needed is 50% less than the amount required in previous designs.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


WHO, 2014, “ Disability and Health, Fact Sheet No. 352,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs352/en/
Shields, R. K. , and Javoroski, S. D. , 2005, “ Monitoring Standing Wheelchair Use After Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report,” Disabil. Rehabil., 27(3), pp. 142–146. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Goher, K. M. , 2013, “ Modelling and Simulation of a Reconfigurable Wheelchair With Sit-to-Stand Facility for a Disabled Child,” 18th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR), Miedzyzdroje, Poland, Aug. 26–29, pp. 430–434.
Dall, P. M. , and Kerr, A. , 2010, “ Frequency of the Sit to Stand Task: An Observational Study of Free-Living Adults,” Appl. Ergon., 41(1), pp. 58–61. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Oden, I. , and Knutsson, E. , 1981, “ Evaluation of the Effects of Muscle Stretch and Weight Load in Patients With Spastic Paraplegia,” Scand. J. Rehabil. Med., 13(4), pp. 117–121. [PubMed]
Kamnik, R. , and Bajd, T. , 2004, “ Standing-Up Robot: An Assistive Rehabilitative Device for Training and Assessment,” J. Med. Eng. Technol., 28(2), pp. 74–80. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Abbas, J. J. , and Gillaette, J. C. , 2001, “ Using Electrical Stimulation to Control Standing Posture,” IEEE Control System Magazines, 21(4), pp. 80–90. [CrossRef]
Bostelman, R. , and Albus, J. , 2007, “ A Multipurpose Robotic Wheelchair and Rehabilitation Device for the Home,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2007), San Diego, CA, Oct. 29–Nov. 2, pp. 3348–3353.
Churchward, R. , 1985, “ The Development of a Standing Wheelchair,” Appl. Ergon., 16(1), pp. 55–62. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bae, J. , and Moon, I. , 2008, “ Design of Seat Mechanism for Multi-Posture-Controllable Wheelchair,” International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS 2008), Seoul, Korea, Oct. 14–17, pp. 1994–1997.
Chungo, D. , Asawa, T. , Kitamura, T. , Songmin, J. , and Takase, K. , 2009, “ A Motion Control of a Robotic Walker for Continuous Assistance During Standing, Walking and Seating Operation,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent and Robot Systems (IROS 2009), St. Louis, MO, Oct. 10–15, pp. 4487–4492.
Redman Power Chair, 2014, “ Redman Standing Tilt Technology vs Traditional Tilt in Space,” Redman Power Chair, Tucson, AZ, http://www.redmanpowerchair.com/resources/redman-standing-tilt-technology-vs-traditional-tilt-in-space/
Cooper, R. A. , Robertson, R. N. , and Boninger, M. L. , 1995, “ A Biomechanical Model of Stand-Up Wheelchairs,” IEEE 17th Annual Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEMBS), Montreal, QC, Canada, Sept. 20–23, pp. 1183–1184.
Goemaere, S. , Van Laere, M. , De Neve, P. , and Kaufman, J. M. , 1994, “ Bone Mineral Status in Paraplegic Patients Who Do or Do Not Perform Standing,” Osteoporosis Int., 4(3), pp. 138–143. [CrossRef]
Ahmad, S. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2008, “ Forward and Backward Motion Control of Wheelchair on Two Wheels,” 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA 2008), Singapore, June 3–5, pp. 461–466.
Ahmad, S. , Tokhi, M. O. , and Siddique, N. H. , 2010, “ Modular Fuzzy Control With Input Shaping Technique for Transformation of Two-Wheeled Wheelchair to Four-Wheeled Mode,” IEEE Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA), Penang, Malaysia, Oct. 3–5, pp. 562–566.
Ahmad, S. , Siddique, N. H. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2011, “ A Modular Fuzzy Control Approach for Two-Wheeled Wheelchair,” J. Intell. Rob. Syst., 64(3), pp. 401–426. [CrossRef]
Ahmad, S. , Siddique, N. H. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2014, “ Modelling and Simulation of Double-Link Scenario in a Two-Wheeled Wheelchair,” Integr. Comput. Aided Eng., 21(2), pp. 119–132.
Johnson & Johnson, and DEKA Research and Development, 2001, “ Independence iBOT Mobility System,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBOT
Almeshal, A. M. , Goher, K. M. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2013, “ Dynamic Modelling and Stabilization of a New Configuration of Two-Wheeled Machines,” Rob. Auton. Syst., 61(5), pp. 443–472. [CrossRef]
Ghani, N. M. A. , Nasir, A. N. L. , Hassan, M. A. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2013, “ PD-Fuzzy Control of a Stair Climbing Wheelchair,” AASRI Proc., 4, pp. 18–25. [CrossRef]
Winter, D. A. , 1990, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Abdulla, S. C. , Sayidmarie, O. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2013, “ Functional Electrical Stimulation-Based Cycling Assisted by Flywheel and Electrical Clutch Mechanism: A Feasibility Simulation Study,” Rob. Auton. Syst., 62(2), pp. 188–199. [CrossRef]
Gharooni, S. C. , Awada, B. , and Tokhi, M. O. , 2005, “ Modeling and Control of Upright Lifting Wheelchair,” 8th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR 2005), London, Sept. 13–15, pp. 969–976.
ISO, 2008, “ Wheelchairs—Part 19: Wheeled Mobility Devices for Use as Seats in Motor Vehicles,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 7176-19:2008.
Cardero, C. , 2012, “ Articulated Human Body,” GrabCAD (epub), https://grabcad.com/library/articulated-human-body–2
Gordon, C. C. , Churchil, T. , Clauser, C. E. , Bradtmiller, B. , McConville, J. T. , and Walker, R. A. , 1989, “ 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Method and Summary Statistics,” United States Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA, Report No. NATICK/TR-15/007, pp. 268–271.
Fariba, B. , Robert, R. , Parviz, J. M. , and Gunther, S. , 2000, “ Biomechanical Analysis of Sit-to-Stand Transfer in Healthy and Paraplegic Subjects,” Clin. Biomech., 15(2), pp. 123–133. [CrossRef]
Raju, G. , Zhou, J. , and Kisner, R. A. , 1991, “ Hierarchical Fuzzy Control,” Int. J. Control, 54(5), pp. 1201–1216. [CrossRef]
Vascak, J. , 1999, “ Fuzzy Control of a Physical Double Inverted Pendulum,” Computational Intelligence, Vol. 1625, Springer, Berlin, pp. 482–494.
Wang, L. X. , 1993, “ Stable Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear System,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., 1(2), pp. 146–155. [CrossRef]
Lianfang, T. , 2005, “ An Intelligent Control Method Based on Fuzzy Logic for a Robotic Testing System for the Human Spine,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 127(5), pp. 807–812. [CrossRef]
Zadeh, L. , 1973, “ Outline of a New Approach to Analysis of Complex Systems and Decision Processes,” IEEE Transaction on System, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-3(1), pp. 28–44.
Zadeh, L. A. , 1988, “ Fuzzy Logic,” Computer, 21(4), pp. 83–93. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the standing wheelchair

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Human model in standing mode and associated anthropometric dimension [22]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Linear actuator and revolute motors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Spring/damping elements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

simulink/matlab and vn4d integration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

MFs for inputs and output for sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Sit-to-stand flow chart

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Stand-to-sit flow chart

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transformations in vn4d

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Linear motion in standing position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Primary and secondary controls structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

System performances

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

System performances



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In