Technical Briefs

Dependence of the Head Injury Criterion and Maximum Acceleration on Headform Mass and Initial Velocity in Tests Simulating Pedestrian Impacts With Vehicles

[+] Author and Article Information
T. P. Hutchinson

Centre for Automotive Safety Research,
University of Adelaide,
Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
e-mail: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au

Manuscript received March 1, 2013; final manuscript received August 29, 2013; accepted manuscript posted September 6, 2013; published online October 1, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.

J Biomech Eng 135(11), 114508 (Oct 01, 2013) (4 pages) Paper No: BIO-13-1105; doi: 10.1115/1.4025331 History: Received March 01, 2013; Revised August 29, 2013; Accepted September 06, 2013

Impact testing of pedestrian headforms is usually conducted at one velocity and with one mass of headform, but real impacts occur at a range of velocities and masses. A method is proposed to predict the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and similar quantities at other velocities from their values observed under test conditions. A specific assumption is made about acceleration during the impact as related to displacement, its differential (instantaneous velocity), mass of headform, and initial velocity: namely, that it is the product of a power function of displacement (representing a possibly nonlinear spring) and a term that includes a type of damping. This equation is not solved, but some properties of the solution are obtained: HIC, maximum acceleration, and maximum displacement are found to be power functions of mass of headform and initial velocity. Expressions for the exponents are obtained in terms of the nonlinearity parameter of the spring. Simple formulae are obtained for the dependence of HIC, maximum acceleration, and maximum displacement on velocity and mass. These are relevant to many types of impact.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hutchinson, T. P., Searson, D. J., Anderson, R. W. G., Dutschke, J. K., Ponte, G., and van den Berg, A. L., 2011, “Protection of the Unhelmeted Head Against Blunt Impact: The Pedestrian and the Car Bonnet,” Proceedings of the Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference.
Euro NCAP, 2013, “Protocols—Pedestrian Protection,” Available at: http://www.euroncap.com/Content-Web-Page/fb5e236e-b11b-4598-8e20-3eced15e74e/protocols.aspx
Hutchinson, T. P., Anderson, R. W. G., and Searson, D. J., 2012, “Pedestrian Headform Testing: Inferring Performance at Impact Speeds and for Headform Masses not Tested, and Estimating Average Performance in a Range of Real-World Conditions,” Traffic Inj. Prev., 13(4), pp. 402–411. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chou, C. C., and Nyquist, G. W., 1974, “Analytical Studies of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC),” SAE Technical Paper No. 740082.
Searson, D. J., Anderson, R. W. G., Ponte, G., and van den Berg, A. L., 2009, “Headform Impact Test Performance of Vehicles Under the GTR on Pedestrian Safety,” Report No. 072, Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
Deb, A., and Ali, T., 2004, “A Lumped Parameter-Based Approach for Simulation of Automotive Headform Impact With Countermeasures,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 30(5), pp. 521–539. [CrossRef]
Hunt, K. H., and Crossley, F. R. E., 1975, “Coefficient of Restitution Interpreted as Damping in Vibroimpact,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 42(2), pp. 440–445. [CrossRef]
Gonthier, Y., McPhee, J., Lange, C., and Piedbœuf, J.-C., 2004, “A Regularized Contact Model With Asymmetric Damping and Dwell-Time Dependent Friction,” Multibody Syst. Dyn., 11(3), pp. 209–233. [CrossRef]
Ommaya, A. K., Thibault, L., and Bandak, F. A., 1994, “Mechanisms of Impact Head Injury,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 15(4), pp. 535–560. [CrossRef]
Anderson, R. W., Long, A. D., and Serre, T., 2009, “Phenomenological Continuous Contact-Impact Modelling for Multibody Simulations of Pedestrian-Vehicle Contact Interactions Based on Experimental Data,” Nonlinear Dyn., 58(1–2), pp. 199–208. [CrossRef]
Marhefka, D. W., and Orin, D. E., 1999, “A Compliant Contact Model With Nonlinear Damping for Simulation of Robotic Systems,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybernet. Part A. Syst. Humans, 29(6), pp. 566–572. [CrossRef]
Machado, M., Moreira, P., Flores, P., and Lankarani, H. M., 2012, “Compliant Contact Force Models in Multibody Dynamics: Evolution of the Hertz Contact Theory,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 53(1), pp. 99–121. [CrossRef]
Hanley, K., Collins, F., Cronin, K., Byrne, E., Moran, K., and Brabazon, D., 2012, “Simulation of the Impact Response of a Sliotar Core With Linear and Non-Linear Contact Models,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 50(1), pp. 113–122. [CrossRef]
Yigit, A. S., Christoforou, A. P., and Majeed, M. A., 2011, “A Nonlinear Visco-Elastoplastic Impact Model and the Coefficient of Restitution,” Nonlinear Dyn., 66(4), pp. 509–521. [CrossRef]
Searson, D. J., Anderson, R. W. G., and Hutchinson, T. P., 2012, “Use of a Damped Hertz Contact Model to Represent Head Impact Safety Tests,” Proceedings of the 7th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics, A.Kolousov et al., eds., Engineers Australia (National Committee on Applied Mechanics), Barton, ACT, pp. 230–239.
Searson, D. J., Anderson, R. W. G., and Hutchinson, T. P., 2012, “The Effect of Impact Speed on the HIC Obtained in Pedestrian Headform Tests,” Int. J. Crashworthiness, 17(5), pp. 562–570. [CrossRef]
Mizuno, K., Yonezawa, H., and Kajzer, J., 2001, “Pedestrian Headform Impact Tests for Various Vehicle Locations,” Proceedings of the 17th Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conference.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In