An EFE Model on Skin-Sleeve Interactions During Arm Rotation

[+] Author and Article Information
Malcolm M. Q. Xing, Zhiguo Sun, Ning Pan

Department of Biological System Engineering, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

Wen Zhong

Department of Textile Sciences,  University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada

Howard I. Maibach

Department of Dermatology,  University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143

J Biomech Eng 128(6), 872-878 (Jun 15, 2006) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2354205 History: Received October 17, 2005; Revised June 15, 2006

Skin and garment constitute a dynamic contact system for human body comfort and protection. Although dermatological injuries due to fabric actions during human body movement are common, there is still no general guidance or standard for measuring or evaluating skin/garment contact interactions, especially, during intense sports. A three-dimensional explicit finite element (EFE) model combined with Augmented Lagrange algorithm (ALA) is developed to simulate interactions between skin and fabric during rotation of the arm. Normalized effective shear stresses at the interface between skin and the sleeve during the arm rotation are provided to reflect the severity of the interactions. The effects due to changes in fabric properties, fabric-skin gap, and arm rotation rate are also illustrated. It has been demonstrated from our predictions that factors such as elastic modulus, friction coefficients, density of fabric, and the initial gap between skin and fabric influence significantly the shear stress and thus the discomfort and even injury potential to skin during intensive body movement such as sports and military. Thus this study for the first time confirms quantitatively that poorly chosen fabric with inappropriate garment design renders adverse actions on human skin.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

(a) Schematics of the FE model for the skin-fabric-arm system under an arm rotation. (b) A local view of the skin and fabric contact in the model.

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Figure 2

Normalized effective shear stress as a function of time at four different fabric modulus levels for simulation a: (A) 200, (B) 400, (C) 600, and (D) 800MPa

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Figure 3

Normalized effective stresses at different friction coefficients as a function of time for simulation b: (A) 0.3, (B) 0, (C) 0.2, and (D) 0.5

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Figure 4

Predicted effective shear stresses at different initial gap between fabric and skin as a function of the rotating time for simulation c. (A) 0.8, (B) 3, (C) 6, and (D) 8mm.

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Figure 5

Predicated normalized stress response with different fabric density as a function of rotation time for simulation d: (A) 2×10−4, (B) 4×10−4, (C) 6×10−4, and (D) 8×10−4g∕mm3

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Figure 6

Displacements of the sleeves away from the arm contacting point as a function of time at different levels of fabric elastic modulus: (A) elastic modulus: 800MPa and (B) elastic modulus: 200MPa

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Figure 7

Initial contact between fabric and skin with a velocity



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