Niemz, M. H., 2002, "*Laser-Tissue Interactions: Fundamentals and Applications*", 2nd revision ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Halldorsson, T., and Langerholc, J., 1978, “Thermodynamic Analysis of Laser Irradiation of Biological Tissue,” Appl. Opt., 17 (24), pp. 3948–3958.

Cummins, L., and Nauenberg, M., 1983, “Thermal effects of laser radiation in biological tissue,” Biophys. J., 42 , pp. 99–102.

Welch, A. J., 1984, “The thermal response of laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

[CrossRef], 20 (12), pp. 1471–1481.

Sliney, D. H., 1985, “Laser-tissue interactions,” Clin. Chest Med., 6 (2), pp. 203–208.

Svaasand, L. O., Gomer, C. J., and Profio, A. E., 1989, “Laser-induced hyperthermia of ocular tumors,” Appl. Opt., 28 (12), pp. 2280–2287.

Grossweiner, L. I., AI-Karmi, A. M., Johnson, P. W., and Brader, K. R., 1990, “Modeling of tissue heating with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med., 10 , pp. 295–302.

McKenzie, A. L., 1990, “Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction”, Phys. Med. Biol.

[CrossRef], 35 (9), pp. 1175–1209.

Panjehpour, M., Wilke, A. V., FrazierD. L., and Overholt, B. F., 1991, “Nd:YAG laser hyperthermia treatment of rat mammary adenocarcinoma in conjunction with surface cooling,” Lasers Surg. Med., 11 , pp. 356–362.

Sagi, A., ShitzerA., Katzir, A., and Akselrod, S., 1992, “Heating of biological tissue by laser irradiation: theoretical model”, Opt. Eng., 31 (7), pp. 1417–1423.

Torres, J. H., Motamedi, M., PearceJ. A., and Welch, A. J., 1993, “Experimental evaluation of mathematical models for predicting the thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation,” Appl. Opt., 32 (4), pp. 597–606.

Beacco, C. M., Mordon, S. R., and Brunetaud, J. M., 1994, “Development and experimental in vivo validation of mathematical modeling of laser coagulation,” Lasers Surg. Med., 14 , pp. 362–373.

Sturesson, C., and Andersson-Engels, S., 1995, “A mathematical model for predicting the temperature distribution in laser-induced hyperthermia: Experimental evaluation and applications,” Phys. Med. Biol.

[CrossRef], 40 , pp. 2037–2052.

Glenn, T. N., Rastegar, S., and Jacques, S. L., 1996, “Finite element analysis of temperature controlled coagulation in laser-irradiation tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

[CrossRef], 43 (1), pp. 79–86.

Welch, A. J., and Gardner, C. M., 1997, “Monte Carlo model for determination of the role of heat generation in laser-irradiated tissue,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119 , pp. 489–495.

Director, L. B., Frid, S. E., Mendeleev, V. Y., and Scovorod’ko, S. N., 1998, “Computer simulation of heat and mass transfer in tissue during high-intensity long-range laser irradiation,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 858 , pp. 56–65.

Olsrud, J., Wirestam, R., Persson, B. R., and Tranberg, Karl-G., 1999, “Simplified treatment planning for interstitial laser thermotherapy by disregarding light transport: A numerical study,” Lasers Surg. Med.

[CrossRef], 25 , pp. 304–314.

Shah, R. K., Nemati, B., Wang, L. V., and Shapshay, S. M., 2002, “Optical-thermal simulation of tonsillar tissue irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., 28 , pp. 313–319.

Zhou, J., and Liu, J., 2004, “Numerical study on 3-D light and heat transport in biological tissues embedded with large blood vessels during laser-induced thermotherapy,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 45 (5), pp. 415–449.

Welch, A.J., and van Gemert, M.J.C., eds., 1995, "*Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue*", Plenum Press, New York.

Fowler, A. J., and Toner, M., 1998, “Prevention of hemolysis in rapidly frozen erythrocytes by using a laser pulse”, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 858 , pp. 245–252.

Shannon, M. A., Rubinsky, B., and Russo, R. E., 1994, “Detecting laser-induced phase change at the surface of solids via latent heat of melting with a photothermal deflection technique,” J. Appl. Phys.

[CrossRef], 75 (3), pp. 1473–1485.

Basu, B., and Date, A. W., 1990, “Numerical study of steady state and transient laser melting problems-I. characteristics of flow field and heat transfer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

[CrossRef], 33 (6), pp. 1149–1163.

Basu, B., and Date, A. W., 1990, “Numerical study of steady state and transient laser melting problems-I. effects of the process parameters”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33 (6), pp. 1165–1175.

Comini, G., and del Giudice, S., 1976, “Thermal aspects of cryosurgery,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 98 , pp. 543–549.

Rabin, Y., and Shitzer, A., 1998, “Numerical solution of the multidimensional freezing problem during cryosurgery,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120 , pp. 32–37.

Rabin, Y., and Shitzer, A., 1997, “Combined solution of the inverse Stefan problem for successive freezing/ thawing in nonideal biological tissues,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119 , pp. 146–152.

Cheong, W. F., Prahl, S. A., and Welch, A. J., 1990, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

[CrossRef], 26 (12), pp. 2166–2185.

Ishimaru, A., 1978, "*Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media*", Academic Press, New York.

Modest, M. F., 2003, "*Radiative Heat Transfer*", 2nd Edition, Academic Press, New York.

Wilson, B. C., and Adam, G., 1983, “A Monte Carlo model of the absorption and flux distribution of light in tissue,” Med. Phys.

[CrossRef], 10 (6), pp. 824–830.

Flock, S. T., Patterson, M. S., Wilson, B. C., and Wyman, D. R., 1989a, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissues-I: model predications and comparison with diffusion theory”, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

[CrossRef], 36 (12), pp. 1162–1168.

Flock, S. T., Wilson, B. C., and Patterson, M. S., 1989b, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissues-II: comparison with measurements in phantoms”, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

[CrossRef], 36 (12), pp. 1169–1173.

Keijzer, M., Jacques, S. L., Prahl, S. A., and Welch, A. J., 1989, “Light distribution in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med., 9 , pp. 148–154.

Hasegawa, Y., Yamada, Y., Tamura, M., and Nomura, Y., 1991, “Monte Carlo simulation of light transmission through living tissues,” Appl. Opt., 30 (31), pp. 4515–4520.

Wang, L., Jacques, S. L., and Zheng, L., 1995, “MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

[CrossRef], 47 , pp. 131–146.

Samarskii, A. A., Vabishchevich, P. N., Iliev, O. P., and Churbanov, A. G., 1993, “Numerical simulation of convection/diffusion phase change problems-a review,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36 (17), pp. 4095–4106.

Voller, V. R., 1997, “An overview of numerical methods for solving phase change problems,” in "*Advances in Numerical Heat Transfer*", W.J.MinKowycz and E.M.Sparrow, eds., Taylor & Francis, Washington, 1 , pp. 341–380.

Bonacina, C., Comini, G., Fasano, A., and Primicerio, M., 1973, “Numerical solution of phase-change problems,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 16 , pp. 1825–1832.

Patankar, S. V., 1980, "*Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow*", Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.

Rabin, Y., and Korin, E., 1993, “An efficient numerical solution for the multidimensional solidification (or melting) problem using a microcomputer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36 (3), pp. 673–683.

Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., 1959, "*Conduction of Heat in Solids*", Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 285–286.

Kent, F. P., and Williams, D., 1974, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 64 (8), pp. 1107–1110.

Warren, S. G., 1984, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt., 23 (8), pp. 1206–1225.

Gage, A. A., and Baust, J., 1998, “Mechanisms of tissue injury in cryosurgery,” Cryobiology

[CrossRef], 37 , pp. 171–186.

Karlsson, J. O., and Toner, M., 1996, “Long-term storage of tissues by cryopreservation: critical issues”, Biomaterials

[CrossRef], 17 (3), pp. 243–256.

Vorotilin, A. M., Zinchenko, A. V., and Moiseyew, V. A., 1991, “Cell injury at the stage of thawing,” Cryoletters, 12 , pp. 77–86.

Zhang, Y. T., and Liu, J., 2002, “Numerical study on three-region thawing problem during cryosurgical re-warming,” Med. Eng. Phys., 24 (4), pp. 265–277.

Wang, L.-H., and Jacques, S. L., 1992, “"*Monte Carlo Modeling of Light Transport in Multi-Layered Tissues in Standard C*",” University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.