Epicardial Suction: A New Approach to Mechanical Testing of the Passive Ventricular Wall

[+] Author and Article Information
R. J. Okamoto, S. J. Peterson

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130

M. J. Moulton, M. K. Pasque

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130

D. Li

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130

J. M. Guccione

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130

J Biomech Eng 122(5), 479-487 (May 30, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1289625 History: Received April 27, 1999; Revised May 30, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lew,  W. Y. W., 1987, “Influence of Ischemic Zone Size on Nonischemic Area Function in the Canine Left Ventricle,” Am. J. Physiol., 252, pp. H990–H997.
Nielsen,  P. M. F., Le Grice,  I. J., Smaill,  B. H., and Hunter,  P. J., 1991, “Mathematical Model of Geometry and Fibrous Structure of the Heart,” Am. J. Physiol., 260, pp. H1365–H1378.
Costa,  K. D., Hunter,  P. J., Wayne,  J. S., Waldman,  L. K., Guccione,  J. M., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1996, “A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Large Elastic Deformations of Ventricular Myocardium: II—Prolate Spheroidal Coordinates,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, pp. 464–472.
Demer,  L. L., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1983, “Passive Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Isolated Canine Myocardium,” J. Physiol. (London), 339, pp. 615–630.
Yin,  F. C. P., Strumpf,  R. K., Chew,  P. H., and Zeger,  S. L., 1987, “Quantification of the Mechanical Properties of Noncontracting Canine Myocardium Under Simultaneous Biaxial Loading,” J. Biomech., 20, pp. 577–589.
Smaill, B. H., and Hunter, P. J., 1991, “Structure and Function of the Diastolic Heart: Material Properties of Passive Myocardium,” in: Theory of Heart: Biomechanics, Biophysics, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Cardiac Function, L. Glass, P. J. Hunter, and A. D. McCulloch, eds., Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1–29.
Novak,  V. P., Yin,  F. C. P., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1994, “Regional Mechanical Properties of Passive Myocardium,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 403–412.
Guccione,  J. M., McCulloch,  A. D., and Waldman,  L. K., 1991, “Passive Material Properties of Intact Ventricular Myocardium Determined From a Cylindrical Model,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 113, pp. 42–55.
Omens,  J. H., MacKenna,  D. A., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1993, “Measurement of Strain and Analysis of Stress in Resting Rat Left Ventricular Myocardium,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 665–676.
Omens,  J. H., May,  K. D., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1991, “Transmural Distribution of Three-Dimensional Strain in the Isolated Arrested Canine Left Ventricle,” Am. J. Physiol., 261, pp. H918–H928.
Guccione,  J. M., Costa,  K. D., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1995, “Finite Element Stress Analysis of Left Ventricular Mechanics in the Beating Dog Heart,” J. Biomech., 28, pp. 1167–1177.
Waldman,  L. K., Fung,  Y. C., and Covell,  J. W., 1985, “Transmural Myocardial Deformation in the Canine Left Ventricle: Normal in Vivo Three-Dimensional Finite Strains,” Circ. Res., 57, pp. 152–163.
Wicomb, W. N., and Cooper, D. K. C., 1990, “Storage of the Donor Heart.” in: The Transplantation and Replacement of Thoracic Organs, Cooper, D. K. C., and Novitsky, D., eds., Kluwer Academic, Boston, pp. 51–61.
Mosher,  T. B., and Smith,  M. B., 1990, “A DANTE Tagging Sequence for the Evaluation of Translational Sample Motion,” Magn. Reson. Med., 15, pp. 334–339.
Creswell,  L. L., Moulton,  M. J., Wyers,  S. G., Pirolo,  J. S., Fishman,  D. S., Perman,  W. H., Myers,  K. W., Actis,  R. L., Vannier,  M. W., Szabo,  B. A., and Pasque,  M. K., 1994, “An Experimental Method for Evaluating Constitutive Models of Myocardium in In-Vivo Hearts,” Am. J. Physiol., 267, pp. H853–H863.
Costa,  K. D., Hunter,  P. J., Rogers,  J. R., Guccione,  J. M., Waldman,  L. K., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1996, “A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Large Elastic Deformations of Ventricular Myocardium: Part I—Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, pp. 452–463.
Okamoto, R. J., 1997, “Determining Mechanical Properties of Heart Muscle Using Epicardial Suction,” D.Sc. thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, MO.
Moulton,  M. J., Creswell,  L. L., Actis,  R. L., Myers,  K. W., Vannier,  M. W., Szabo,  B. A., and Pasque,  M. K., 1995, “An Inverse Approach to Determining Myocardial Material Properties,” J. Biomech., 28, pp. 935–948.
Humphrey,  J. D., Strumpf,  R. K., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1990, “Determination of a Constitutive Relation for Passive Myocardium: II. Parameter Estimation,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 112, pp. 340–346.
Le Grice,  I. L., Smaill,  B. H., Chai,  L. Z., Edgar,  S. G., Gavin,  J. B., and Hunter,  P. J., 1995, “Laminar Structure of the Heart: Ventricular Myocyte Arrangement and Connective Tissue Architecture in the Dog,” Am. J. Physiol., 269, pp. H571–H582.
Kang,  T., Humphrey,  J. D., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1996, “Comparison of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Excised Endocardium and Epicardium,” Am. J. Physiol., 270, pp. H2169–H2176.
Humphrey,  J. D., Strumpf,  R. K., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1990, “Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Excised Ventricular Epicardium,” Am. J. Physiol., 259, pp. H101–H108.
Humphrey,  J. D., Strumpf,  R. K., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1992, “A Constitutive Theory for Biomembranes: Application to Epicardial Mechanics,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 114, pp. 461–466.
Kang,  T., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1996, “The Need to Account for Residual Strains and Composite Nature of Heart Wall in Mechanical Analyses,” Am. J. Physiol., 271, pp. H947–H961.
Criscione,  J. C., Lorenzen-Schmidt,  I., Humphrey,  J. D., and Hunter,  W. C., 1999, “Mechanical Contribution of Endocardium During Finite Extension and Torsion Experiments on Papillary Muscles,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 27, pp. 123–130.
May-Newman,  K., Omens,  J. H., Pavelec,  R. S., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1994, “Three-Dimensional Transmural Mechanical Interaction Between the Coronary Vasculature and Passive Myocardium in the Dog,” Circ. Res., 74, pp. 1166–1178.
May-Newman,  K., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1998, “Homogenization Modeling for the Mechanics of Perfused Myocardium,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 69, pp. 463–481.
Omens,  J. H., and Fung,  Y. C., 1990, “Residual Strain in Rat Left Ventricle,” Circ. Res., 66, pp. 37–45.
Costa,  K. D., May-Newman,  K., Farr,  D., O’Dell,  W. G., McCulloch,  A. D., and Omens,  J. H., 1997, “Three-Dimensional Residual Strain in Midanterior Canine Left Ventricle,” Am. J. Physiol., 273, pp. H1968–1976.
Young, A. A., 1991, “Epicardial Deformation From Coronary Cineangiograms.” in: Theory of Heart: Biomechanics, Biophysics, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Cardiac Function, Glass, L., Hunter, J. P., and McCulloch, A. D., eds., Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 175–207.
O’Dell,  W. G., Moore,  C. C., Hunter,  W. C., Zerhouni,  E. A., and McVeigh,  E. R., 1995, “Three-Dimensional Myocardial Deformations: Calculation With Displacement Field Fitting to Tagged MR Images,” Radiology, 195, pp. 829–835.
Moulton,  M. J., Creswell,  L. L., Downing,  S. W., Actis,  R. L., Szabo,  B. A., Vannier,  M. W., and Pasque,  M. K., 1996, “Spline Surface Interpolation for Calculated 3-D Ventricular Strains From MRI Tissue Tagging,” Am. J. Physiol., 270, pp. H281–H297.
Young,  A. A., Axel,  L., Dougherty,  L., Bogen,  D. K., and Parenteau,  C. S., 1993, “Validation of Tagging With MR Imaging to Estimate Material Deformation,” Radiology, 188, pp. 101–108.


Grahic Jump Location
Overview of the method for optimizing material properties using the epicardial suction. Epicardial suction is applied to a site on the LV. Geometry MR images are used to create an FE model that matches the experimental geometry and location of the suction cup. Measured pressures are used to define the loading for the FE model. Deformed and undeformed tag point locations are used to determine displacements. FE predicted displacements are interpolated from the FE model solution using the deformed tag point locations. At each iteration, the optimization algorithm solves the forward FE problem and calculates the sum of squares of the difference between predicted and measured displacements at all data points. Material parameters in the constitutive relation used in the FE model are adjusted iteratively to minimize the sum of squares objective function.
Grahic Jump Location
Experiment setup, showing: (1) isolated arrested heart in cold saline solution; (2) suction cup; (3) vacuum applied continuously in narrow channel surrounding orifice; (4) servopump; (5) suction pressure measurement; (6) holding fixture and MR orbit coil (cross-hatched). A clamp holding the suction cup in position has been omitted for clarity.
Grahic Jump Location
Suction cup with concave surface of nonuniform curvature. The surface was contoured to approximately match the radii of curvature of the lateral free wall of the canine LV.
Grahic Jump Location
Image planes for MR tagging. In order to acquire a three-dimensional deformation field, five image sequences were obtained in two orthogonal directions with image planes parallel to the walls of the suction cup. Image planes are approximately aligned with the long and short axes of the heart.
Grahic Jump Location
MR tagged images through center of suction cup for experiment 06. (A) and (B): Undeformed short and long-axis images. (C) and (D): Images acquired at t=60 ms, suction pressure=2.3 kPa. (E) and (F): Images acquired at t=105 ms, suction pressure=3.2 kPa.
Grahic Jump Location
Deformed shape plots of FE solution (Exp. 06) with optimized homogeneous material parameters at suction pressure of 3.2 kPa, corresponding to Figs. 5(E) and 5(F). (A) Short-axis view through center of suction cup (B) Long-axis view through center of suction cup.
Grahic Jump Location
Normal (A) and shear (B) strain components as a function of transmural position in FE elements through center of suction cup. (C) Radial-circumferential shear strains in elements through the center of suction cup and to the anterior and posterior of center elements. (D) Radial-longitudinal shear strains in elements through the center of suction cup, and in elements toward the apex and base. All values were predicted from the FE model for experiment 06 using optimized material parameters at experimental pressure of 3.2 kPa as shown in Fig. 6.
Grahic Jump Location
Transmural variation in strain components in FE model of passive LV filling computed at 1 kPa cavity pressure. Lagrangian strain components referred to cardiac coordinates for five experiments were computed at the central gauss point of midventricular elements. Results shown are mean values with one-sided error bars of 1 SD for the model assuming homogeneous, transversely isotropic heart wall (open circles) and transversely isotropic myocardium and isotropic epicardium (open squares). Closed circles with error bars (±1 SD) represent experimental data of Omens et al. 10 on the anterior wall of the LV at midventricle at the same cavity pressure.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In