Estimation of in Vivo Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Shape Characterization for Diagnosing Osteoporosis by Ultrasonic Inspection

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Nogata

Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 501-1193, Gifu, Japan

K. Matsui

Sensa Corp., 924, Kanazawa, Japan

K. Kagechika

Toyama-ken Koshi Rehabilitation Hospital, 931, Toyama, Japan

Y. Sueyoshi

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Hospital of Kanazawa, 920, Kanazawa, Japan

K. Tomita

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 930, Kanazawa, Japan

J Biomech Eng 121(3), 298-303 (Jun 01, 1999) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2798323 History: Received August 27, 1997; Revised October 20, 1998; Online October 30, 2007


A new method for estimating in vivo bone mineral density (BMD ) and characterizing the shape of cancellous bone has been proposed using the results of ultrasonic inspection for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The method is based on two-dimensional bone area fraction S (percent bone area between bone and bone marrow) calculated from the difference in the speed of ultrasonic wave propagation through cancellous bone. It was shown that the two-dimensional area fraction of a heel bone gives a good relationship to the BMD by DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) testing of human heel bone (calcaneus) and spine (vertebrae lumbar), as expressed by the relation, BMD (g/cm2 ) = 0.0167S for heel bone (r = 0.83), and BMD (g/cm2 ) = 0.0254S + 0.123 for the spine (r = 0.77). Shape characterization is based on the image simulation procedure employing eight random variables from a computer and the statistical results of fractal analysis for numerous cancellous bone patterns. We also demonstrate the validity of the shape characterization technique using autopsy specimens as a diagnostic tool for osteoporosis.

Copyright © 1999 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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