Evaluation of the Proximal Flow Field to Circular and Noncircular Orifices of Different Aspect Ratios

[+] Author and Article Information
J. G. Myers, J. F. Fox, A. M. Elmahdi

School of Engineering, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-4461

G. J. Perry

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233; Cardiology Section, Birmingham Veteran’s Administration Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233

A. S. Anayiotos

School of Engineering: Division of Cardiovascular Disease, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233

J Biomech Eng 119(3), 349-356 (Aug 01, 1997) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2796100 History: Received November 28, 1995; Revised July 12, 1996; Online October 30, 2007


Investigations of valvular regurgitation attempt to specify flow field characteristics and apply them to the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method for quantifying regurgitant flow. Most investigators assume a hemispherical shape to these equivelocity shells proximal to an axisymmetric (circular) orifice. However, in vivo flow fields are viscous and regurgitant openings vary in shape and size. By using centerline profiles and isovelocity surfaces, this investigation describes the flow field proximal to circular and elliptical orifices. Steady, proximal flow fields are obtained with two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. These simulations are verified by in vitro, laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) experiments. The data show that a unique, normalized proximal flow field results for each orifice shape independent of orifice flow or size. The distinct differences in flow field characteristics with orifice shape may provide a mechanism for evaluating orifice characteristics and regurgitant flows. Instead of the hemispherical approximation technique, this study attempts to show the potential to define a universal flow evaluation method based on the details of the flowfield according to orifice shape. Preliminary results indicate that Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Color Doppler (CD) may reproduce these flow details and allow such a procedure in vivo.

Copyright © 1997 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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