Linear and Quasi-Linear Viscoelastic Characterization of Ankle Ligaments

[+] Author and Article Information
J. R. Funk, G. W. Hall, J. R. Crandall, W. D. Pilkey

Automobile Safety Laboratory, Department of Mechanical, Nuclear, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903

J Biomech Eng 122(1), 15-22 (Sep 05, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429623 History: Received April 23, 1998; Revised September 05, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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Locations of the eight major ankle ligaments examined in this study
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Spring-dashpot model of an ankle ligament
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Specimen mounting scheme
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Schematic illustrating all possible phases of the test battery applied to ligament specimens
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Example of the large shock wave vibrations seen in step tests. The curve fit of the relaxation function is shown with the back-extrapolated portion (0 s<t<0.1 s) indicated by the dashed line.
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Reduced relaxation function G(t) data and curve fit for the posterior tibiofibular (PTiF) ligament (n=5). Inter-specimen variability was fairly low for this ligament type (R2=0.793).
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G versus strain for serial step relaxation tests on the same specimen at various strain magnitudes. N=1 for each of the five ligament types. Statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were found between the values of G at 15 percent and 20 percent strain.
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Hysteresis loops for an anterior tibiofibular (ATiF) ligament specimen. The stiffness of the specimen is seen to increase at higher strain levels. Although stiffness also increases somewhat at higher strain rates, the data demonstrate that the ligament is not largely rate sensitive.
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(a) Linear elastic and viscoelastic models of the anterior tibiofibular (ATiF) ligament in response to ramp displacements at varying strain rates. In the linear models, the stiffness of the material stays constant or decreases with increasing strain, a characteristic not seen in the experimental data (see Fig. 8). (b) Nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic (QLV) models of the anterior tibiofibular (ATiF) ligament in response to ramp displacements at varying strain rates. The nonlinear models show an increasing stiffness in the material at higher strains, as seen in the expeirmental data (see Fig. 8).



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