Quantifying Skeletal Muscle Properties in Cadaveric Test Specimens: Effects of Mechanical Loading, Postmortem Time, and Freezer Storage

[+] Author and Article Information
C. A. Van Ee, A. L. Chasse, B. S. Myers

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0281

J Biomech Eng 122(1), 9-14 (Sep 05, 1999) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429621 History: Received February 11, 1999; Revised September 05, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Borchers,  R. E., Gibson,  L. J., Burchardt,  H., and Hayes,  W. C., 1995, “Effects of selected thermal variables on the mechanical properties of trabecular bone,” Biomaterials, 16, No. 7, pp. 545–551.
Goh,  J. C., Ang,  E. J., and Bose,  K., 1989, “Effect of preservation medium on the mechanical properties of cat bones,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 60, pp. 465–467.
Linde,  F., and Sorensen,  H. C. F., 1993, “The effect of different storage methods on the mechanical properties of trabecular bone,” J. Biomech., 26, No. 10, pp. 1249–1252.
Pelker,  R. R., Friedlaender,  G. E., Markham,  T. C., Panjabi,  M. M., and Moen,  C. J., 1984, “Effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the biomechanical properties of rat bone,” J. Orthop. Res., 1, pp. 405–411.
Sedlin,  E. D., 1965, “A rheologic model for cortical bone. A study of the physical properties of human femoral samples,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 36 (Suppl. 83), pp. 1–77.
Turner,  W. D., Vasseur,  P., Gorek,  J. E., Rodrigo,  J. J., and Wedell,  J. R., 1988, “An in vitro study of the structural properties of deep-frozen versus freeze-dried, ethylene oxide-sterilized canine anterior cruciate ligament bone–ligament–bone preparations,” Clin. Orthop., 230, pp. 251–256.
Woo,  L.-Y., Orlando,  C. A., Camp,  J. F., and Akeson,  W. H., 1986, “Effects of postmortem storage by freezing on ligament tensile behavior,” J. Biomech., 19, pp. 399–404.
Smith,  C. W., Young,  I. S., and Kearney,  J. N., 1996, “Mechanical properties of tendons: changes with sterilization and preservation,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, No. 1, pp. 56–61.
Foutz,  T. L., Stone,  E. A., and Abrams,  C. F., 1992, “Effects of freezing on mechanical properties of rat skin,” Am. J. Vet. Res., 53, pp. 788–792.
Kiefer,  G. N., Sundby,  K., McAllister,  D., Shrive,  N. G., Frank,  C. B., Lam,  T., and Schachar,  N. S., 1989, “The effect of cryopreservation on the biomechanical behavior of bovine articular cartilage,” J. Orthop. Res., 7, pp. 494–501.
Callaghan,  J. P., and McGill,  S. M., 1995, “Frozen storage increases the ultimate compressive load of porcine vertebrae,” J. Orthop. Res., 13, pp. 809–812.
McElhaney, J. H., Paver, J. G., McCrackin, H. J., and Maxwell, G. M., 1983, “Cervical spine compression responses,” SAE Paper No. 831615.
Panjabi,  M. M., Krag,  M., Summers,  D., and Videman,  T., 1985, “Biomechanical time tolerance of fresh cadaveric human spine specimens,” J. Orthop. Res., 3, pp. 292–300.
Smeathers,  J. E., and Joanes,  D. N., 1988, “Dynamic compressive properties of human lumbar intervertebral joints: a comparison between fresh and thawed specimens,” J. Biomech., 21, pp. 425–433.
Mertz, H. J., and Patrick, L. M., 1967, “Investigation of the Kinematics and Kinetics of Whiplash,” SAE Paper No. 670919.
Mertz, H. J., and Patrick, L. M., 1971, “Strength and Response of the Human Neck,” SAE Paper No. 710855.
Bendjellal, F., Terriere, C., Gillet, D., Mack, P., and Guillon, F., 1987, “Head and Neck Responses Under High G-level Lateral Deceleration. Biomechanics of Impact Injury and Injury Tolerances of the Head–Neck Complex,” SAE Paper No. 872196.
Wismans, J., Phiippens, M., van Oorswchot, E., Kalliers, D., and Mattern, R., 1987, “Comparison of Human Volunteer and Cadaver Head–Neck Response in Frontal Flexion,” SAE Paper No. 872194.
Mayer, R. G., and Bigelow, G. S., 1990, Em̀balming: History, Theory, and Practice, Appleton and Lange, East Norwalk, CT.
Fitzgerald,  E. R., 1975, “Dynamic mechanical measurements during the life to death transition in animal tissues,” Biorheology, 12, No. 6, pp. 397–408.
Gottsauner-Wolf,  F., Grabowski,  J. J., Chao,  E. Y. S., and An,  K. N., 1995, “Effects of freeze/thaw conditioning on the tensile properties and failure mode of bone-muscle-bone units: a biomechanical and histological study in dogs,” J. Orthop. Res., 13, No. 1, pp. 90–95.
Leitschuh,  P. H., Doherty,  T. J., Taylor,  D. C., Brooks,  D. E., and Ryan,  J. B., 1996, “Effects of postmortem freezing on the tensile properties of the rabbit extensor digitorum longus muscle tendon complex,” J. Orthop. Res., 14, pp. 830–833.
Goll, D. E., Taylor, R. G., Christiansen, J. A., and Thompson, V. F., 1992, “Role of proteinases and protein turnover in muscle growth and meat quality,” Proc. 44th Annu. Recip. Meat Conf., National Livestock and Meat Board, Chicago, IL, pp. 25–36.
Myers,  B. S., McElhaney,  J. H., and Doherty,  B. J., 1991, “The Viscoelastic Responses of the Human Cervical Spine in Torsion: Experimental Limitations of Quasi-linear Theory, and a Method for Reducing These Effects,” J. Biomech., 24, No. 9, pp. 811–817.
Myers, B. S., McElhaney, J. H., Richardson, W. J., Nightingale, R. W., and Doherty, B. J., 1991, “The Influence of End Condition on Human Cervical Spine Injury Mechanisms,” SAE Paper No. 912915.
Panjabi,  M. M., White,  A. A., and Johnson,  R. M., 1975, “Cervical Spine Mechanics as a Function of Transection of Components,” J. Biomech., 8, pp. 327–336.
Yoganandan,  N., Sances,  A., Pintar,  F., Maiman,  D. J., Reinartz,  J., Cusick,  J. F., and Larson,  S. J., 1990, “Injury Biomechanics of the Human Cervical Column,” Spine, 15, p. 10.
Nightingale,  R. W., McElhaney,  J. H., Richardson,  W. J., Best,  T. M., and Myers,  B. S., 1996, “Experimental Impact Injury to the Cervical Spine: Relating Motion of the Head and the Mechanism of Injury,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 78-A, No. 3, pp. 312–321.
Garrett,  W. E., Safran,  M. R., Seaber,  A. V., Glisson,  R. R., and Ribbeck,  B. M., 1988, “Biomechanical comparison of stimulated and non-stimulated skeletal muscle pulled to failure,” Am. J. Sports Med., 15, No. 5, pp. 448–454.
Myers, B. S., Van Ee, C. A., Camacho, D. L. A., Woolley, C. T., and Best, T. M., 1995, “On the structural and material properties of mammalian skeletal muscle and its relevance to human cervical impact dynamics,” Proc. 39th Annual Stapp Car Crash Conf., pp. 203–214.
Lieber,  R. L., and Blevins,  F. T., 1989, “Skeletal muscle architecture of the rabbit hindlimb: functional implications of muscle design,” J. Morphol., 199, pp. 93–101.
Best, T. M., 1993, “A Biomechanical Study of Skeletal Muscle Strain Injuries,” Ph.D. Thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC.
Dimery,  N. J., 1985, “Muscle and Sarcomere lengths in the hind limb of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) during a galloping stride,” J. Zool. Lond., 205, pp. 373–383.
Fox, S. I., 1993, Human Physiology, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the test battery illustrating the time at which tests were conducted and the nomenclature used. The first two experimental groups were formed to investigate both the temporal changes of muscle properties, the effect of mechanical stabilization, and the effect of repeated testing. The second two groups were formed to determine the effect of freezing on muscle properties and if the time of initiating the freezing process was significant. Tests with equal time at room temperature were compared.
Grahic Jump Location
The stress–strain response showing the temporal changes in the mechanical properties postmortem for a typical specimen. Only small variations were observed for the first seven hours postmortem. As the muscle went into rigor, the stiffness greatly increased, reaching a peak at postmortem hour 12. After postmortem hour 24 the response showed a decrease in stiffness and shifted right becoming less stiff than the initial response (0.5 hours) between postmortem hours 26 and 30. The results of the regression to determine modulus (SL) and no-load strain (NL) are shown for 12, 42, and 72 hours postmortem. The decreased stiffness was the result of an increased no-load region.
Grahic Jump Location
The average modulus for the Continuous group was not significantly different from its initial value until postmortem hour 10. The modulus value peaked at postmortem hour 15 and then decreased to a constant level with no significant differences occurring after 26 hours postmortem. Also shown is the highly variable modulus of muscle that was frozen prior to rigor (PreR-6) as the muscle underwent a delayed rigor process following thawing.
Grahic Jump Location
The average no-load strain for the Continuous group was not significantly different from its initial value until postmortem hour 9. The no-load strain then decreased to a minimum at hour 14. After 36 hours the no-load strain continued to increase; however, the values were not significantly different from each other.
Grahic Jump Location
The effect of mechanical stabilization on a typical muscle 0.5 hours postmortem. The effect of stabilization was small and only a few cycles were needed to stabilize the tissue mechanically.
Grahic Jump Location
The mechanical stabilization effect at 48 hours postmortem for a typical specimen from the Single group. The no-load strain increased greatly during mechanical stabilization with large changes occurring in the first few loading cycles. A large number of cycles were required to stabilize the response.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In