Sagittal Profile of the Femoral Condyles and Its Application to Femorotibial Contact Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Nuño, A. M. Ahmed

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 2K6

J Biomech Eng 123(1), 18-26 (Oct 16, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1339819 History: Received November 05, 1998; Revised October 16, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wismans,  J., Veldpaus,  F., Janssen,  J., Huson,  A., and Struben,  P., 1980, “A Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model of the Knee-Joint,” J. Biomech., 13, pp. 677–685.
Ateshian,  G. A., Soslowsky,  L. J., and Mow,  V. C., 1991, “Quantitation of Articular Surface Topography and Cartilage Thickness in Knee Joints Using Stereophotogrammetry,” J. Biomech., 24, pp. 761–776.
Huiskes,  R., Kremers,  J., De Lange,  A., Woltring,  H. J., Selvik,  G., and Van Rens,  Th. J. G., 1985, “Analytical Stereophotogrammetry Determination of Three-Dimensional Knee-Joint Geometry,” J. Biomech., 18, pp. 559–570.
Ateshian,  G. A., 1993, “A B-Spline Least-Squares Surface-Fitting Method for Articular Surfaces of Diarthrodial Joints,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 115, pp. 366–373.
Zoghi,  M., Hefzy,  M. S., Fu,  K. C., and Jackson,  W. T., 1992, “A Three-Dimensional Morphometrical Study of the Distal Human Femur,” J. Eng. Med., 206, pp. 147–157.
Elias,  S. G., Freeman,  M. A. R., and Gokcay,  E. I., 1990, “A Correlative Study of the Geometry and Anatomy of the Distal Femur,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 260, pp. 98–103.
Garg,  A., and Walker,  P. S., 1990, “Prediction of Total Knee Motion Using a Three-Dimensional Computer-Graphics Model,” J. Biomech., 23, pp. 45–58.
Rehder,  U., 1983, “Morphometrical Studies on the Symmetry of the Human Knee Joint: Femoral Condyles,” J. Biomech., 16, pp. 351–361.
Röstlund,  T., Carlsson,  L., Albrektsson,  B., and Albrektsson,  T., 1989, “Morphometrical Studies of Human Femoral Condyles,” J. Biomed. Eng., 11, pp. 442–448.
Walker,  P. S., 1988, “Bearing Surface Design in Total Knee Replacement,” Eng. Med., 17, pp. 149–156.
Walker,  P. S., Rovick,  J. S., and Robertson,  D. D., 1988, “The Effects of Knee Brace Hinge Design and Placement on Joint Mechanics,” J. Biomech., 21, pp. 965–974.
Wyss, U. P., Doerig, M., Frey, O., and Gschwend, N., 1982, Biomechanics: Principles and Applications, R. Huiskes, D. Van Campen, and J. De Wijn, eds., Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 291–297.
Hollister,  A. M., Jatana,  S., Singh,  A. K., Sullivan,  W. W., and Lupichuk,  A. G., 1993, “The Axes of Rotation of the Knee,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 290, pp. 259–268.
Kurosawa,  H., Walker,  S., Abe,  S., Garg,  A., and Hunter,  T., 1985, “Geometry and Motion of the Knee for Implant and Orthotic Design,” J. Biomech., 18, pp. 487–499.
Mensch,  J. S., and Amstutz,  H. C., 1975, “Knee Morphology as a Guide to Knee Replacement,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 112, pp. 231–241.
Walker,  P. S., and Garg,  A., 1991, “Range of Motion in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Computer Analysis,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 262, pp. 227–235.
Ishikawa,  H., Fujiki,  H., and Yasuda,  K., 1996, “Contact Analysis of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Articular Plate in Artificial Knee Joint During Gait Movement,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, pp. 377–386.
Wimmer,  M. A., and Andriacchi,  T. P., 1997, “Tractive Forces During Rolling Motion of the Knee: Implications for Wear in Total Knee Replacement,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 131–137.
Bartel,  D. L., Burstein,  A. H., Toda,  M. D., and Edwards,  D. L., 1985, “The Effect of Conformity and Plastic Thickness on Contact Stresses in Metal-Backed Plastic Implants,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 107, pp. 193–199.
Bartel,  D. L., Bicknell,  V. L., Ithaca,  X. Y., and Wright,  T. M., 1986, “The Effect of Conformity, Thickness, and Material on Stresses in Ultra-High Molecular Weight Components for Total Joint Replacement,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 68-A, pp. 1041–1051.
Bartel,  D. L., Rawlinson,  J. J., Burstein,  A. H., Ranawat,  C. S., and Flynn,  W. F., 1995, “Stresses in Polyethylene Components of Contemporary Total Knee Replacements,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 317, pp. 76–82.
Kawai,  T., 1980, “Some Considerations on the Finite Element Method,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 16, pp. 81–120.
Li,  G., Sakamoto,  M., and Chao,  E. Y. S., 1997, “A Comparison of Different Methods in Predicting Static Pressure Distribution in Articulating Joints,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 635–638.
Waldman,  S. D., and Bryant,  J. T., 1994, “Compressive Stress Relaxation Behavior of Irradiated Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene at 37°C,” J. Appl. Biomater, 5, pp. 333–338.
Kalker, J. J., 1985, A Course of Contact Mechanics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Blankevoort,  L., Kuiper,  R., Huiskes,  J. H., and Grootenboer,  H. J., 1991, “Articular Contact in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Knee,” J. Biomech., 24, pp. 1019–1031.
Morrison,  J. B., 1968, “Bioengineering Analysis of Force Actions Transmitted by the Knee Joint,” Biomed. Eng., 3, pp. 164–170.
Morrison,  J. B., 1969, “Function of the Knee Joint in Various Activities,” Biomed. Eng., 4, pp. 573–580.
Zar, J. H., 1996, Biostatistical Analysis, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 662.
Hsu,  R. W. W., Himeno,  S., Coventry,  M. B., and Chao,  E. Y. S., 1990, “Normal Axial Alignment of the Lower Extremity and Load-Bearing Distribution at the Knee,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 255, pp. 215–227.
Yoshioka,  Y., Siu,  D., and Cooke,  T. D. V., 1987, “The Anatomy and Functional Axes of the Femur,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 69-A, pp. 873–880.
Herzog,  R. J., Silliman,  J. F., Hutton,  K., Rodkey,  W. G., and Steadman,  J. R., 1994, “Measurements of the Intercondylar Notch by Plain Film Radiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Am. J. Sports Med., 22, pp. 204–210.
Harris,  M. L., Morberg,  P., Bruce,  W. J. M., and Walsh,  W. R., 1999, “An Improved Method for Measuring Tibiofemoral Contact Areas in Total Knee Arthroplasty: a Comparison of K-can and Fuji Film,” J. Biomech., 32, pp. 951–958.


Grahic Jump Location
Description of the coordinate system. (a) Frontal and lateral views of the femoral bone-stub axis; (b) complete femoral anatomic coordinate system; (c) positioning and alignment of the specimen inside a box with edges parallel to the femoral anatomic coordinate system
Grahic Jump Location
Two-circular-arc model describing the femoral condyles in the sagittal plane. The dots represent the experimentally digitized points of the medial condyle of one male left-knee specimen; r1=19.9 mm,r2=35.0 mm,σ=0.18 mm
Grahic Jump Location
Typical two-dimensional representation of the raw data of one male right-knee digitized specimen at 90 deg flexion angle showing the sagittal plane located at the lowest point
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of the variation of the sagittal plane located at the x coordinate of the lowest point in the y axis. The two-circular-arc models for the lateral condyle of a female right-knee specimen are: for x=19.5 mm,r1=15.6 mm,r2=30.4 mm,(r1/r2=0.513); for x=20.5 mm,r1=15.8 mm,r2=27.0 mm,(r1/r2=0.585); for x=22.5 mm,r1=14.0 mm,r2=25.1 mm(r1/r2=0.558)
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Schematic representation of the condylar femorotibial contact of one implant; sagittal profile (b) and frontal profile (c) of the femorotibial surfaces in contact showing the variables used in the Rigid-Body-Spring Model for the nonlinear contact analysis
Grahic Jump Location
Two-circular-arc model for the medial condyle of a male left-knee specimen (different from the one considered in Fig. 2) for two different femoral coordinate systems: z axis aligned with the mechanical (r1/r2=0.557) and anatomical (r1/r2=0.553) axes
Grahic Jump Location
One-circular-arc model for the medial condyle of a male left-knee specimen (the same condyle as the one considered in Fig. 6) for two different femoral coordinate systems: z axis aligned with the mechanical (r=23.7 mm) and anatomical (r=24.0 mm) axes
Grahic Jump Location
Results of the parametric contact analysis for 45 deg flexion angle showing the effect of varying the femorotibial conformity rt/r2 in the sagittal plane and of increasing radius r1 on the peak contact stresses for a radius of curvature of the femoral and tibial components of 21 mm in the frontal plane, r2=35.8 mm
Grahic Jump Location
Results of the parametric contact analysis for 45 deg flexion angle showing the effect of changing the sagittal profile geometry and the radius of curvature of the femoral and tibial components in the frontal plane for a femorotibial conformity rt/r2=1 in the sagittal plane, r2=35.8 mm



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In