The fluidic down-the-hole (DTH) hammer drilling is generally regarded as one of the best means for hot dry rock (HDR) drilling. The fluid oscillator, as the core part of the fluidic DTH hammer, is prone to fracture when subjected to impact loads due to its brittle characteristics. Therefore, a steel-layered structure with different contact areas is developed as a stress wave attenuator to protect the fluid oscillator for the DTH hammer under high-temperature drilling conditions. In this paper, the stress wave attenuation performance with different steel-layered structures is analyzed based on the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique. The effects of contact area ratio, the orientation of contact surfaces, and number of layers on the stress wave attenuation are investigated by numerical simulations and laboratory tests. It is found that the attenuation ratios in stress amplitude and impact energy gradually increased with the increase of the contact area ratio. Besides, the orientation of contact surfaces has a significant influence on the attenuation effect. For the layered structure with a two-layer object part, the maximum attenuation ratios of stress amplitude and impact energy are 62.4% and 79.6%, respectively, when the included angle between the two convex structures is increased to 90 deg. Additionally, the attenuation ratio of the layered structure can be improved by increasing the number of layers. The results demonstrate that the stress wave attenuator with layered structures has great potential for brittle materials protection against impact loads.