The effect of varying turbulence levels on long-term loads extrapolation techniques was examined using a joint probability density function of both mean wind speed and turbulence level for loads calculations. The turbulence level has a dramatic effect on the statistics of moment maxima extracted from aeroelastic simulations. Maxima from simulations at lower turbulence levels are more deterministic and become dominated by the stochastic component as turbulence level increases. Short-term probability distributions were calculated using four different moment-based fitting methods. Several hundred of these distributions were used to calculate a long-term probability function. From the long-term probability, 1- and 50-year extreme loads were estimated. As an alternative, using a normal distribution of turbulence level produced a long-term load comparable to that of a log-normal distribution and may be more straightforward to implement. A parametric model of the moments was also used to estimate the extreme loads. The parametric model predicted nearly identical loads to the empirical model and required less data. An input extrapolation technique was also examined. Extrapolating the turbulence level prior to input into the aeroelastic code simplifies the loads extrapolation procedure but, in this case, produces loads lower than the empirical model and may be non-conservative in general.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.