The bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) is a naturally occurring thin layer of phospholipid molecules that surrounds cellular systems. The membrane operates as a near-impermeable barrier allowing for the generation of membrane potentials across the layer through changes in ionic concentrations. This membrane is required for regular cell function ranging from storing energy to passing signals. Engineering advancements have allowed for the rapid creation of artificial bilayer membranes, and these membranes are currently considered for many biomimetic applications.

The application of interest for this paper is the further development of these cellular systems for sensing applications. This will be accomplished through a combined fluid-bilayer model, allowing for study of the bilayer transduction properties at both high and low frequencies. Several approaches are discussed and applied to multiple cell systems with or without embedded voltage-dependent ion pores. Finally the results are studied and evidence is presented for the development of a new molecular model for cellular systems combining chemical, electrical, and mechanical stimuli.

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