The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive algebraic model for better understanding of the cutting force system in the ball-end milling process. This objective is accomplished by analytically formulating the dominant dynamic components of three dimensional cutting forces in the machining of parts with helical multi-flute ball-end milling cutters. In this formulation, the effects of tool geometry, material characteristics, machining configurations, cutter-workpiece interactions, process parameters are quantitatively and explicitly presented. In this improved formulation, the axis inclination in the generation of 3-D sculpture surfaces is also incorporated to the force model, and the cutting force coefficients are predicted from the average chip thickness.

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