Today, low frequency disc-brake noises are commonly explained as self-sustained stick-slip oscillations. Although, at a first glance this explanation seems reasonable, there are indices that cast doubt on it. For instance, the basic frequency of the observed oscillations does not scale with the disc-speed as it is with stick-slip oscillations and the classical model does not explain the observed ending of the vibrations beyond a certain speed. Indeed, our experimental studies on groaning noises reveal two different vibration patterns: stick-slip vibrations at almost vanishing relative speed and a second, differing vibration pattern at low to moderate relative speeds. Yet, these two patterns produce a very similar acoustic impression. While the experiment provides a vast amount of data, the dimension and structure of the underlying oscillation is not known a priori – hence, constructing phenomenological minimal models usually must rely on assumptions, e.g. about the number of DOF, etc. Due to noise and complexity, the measured raw data did only allow for a first straight forward insight, rendering further analysis necessary. Hence, time-delay embedding methods together with a principle component analysis were used to reconstruct a pseudo-phase space together with the embedded attractor to analyse for the system's dimension and to separate signal from noise.
Friction Induced Brake Vibrations at Low Speeds: Experiments, State-Space Reconstruction and Implications on Modeling
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Hetzler, H, & Seemann, W. "Friction Induced Brake Vibrations at Low Speeds: Experiments, State-Space Reconstruction and Implications on Modeling." Proceedings of the ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Applied Mechanics. Chicago, Illinois, USA. November 5–10, 2006. pp. 283-292. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2006-14034
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