This paper investigates dynamic models of submerged objects which are obtained by acoustically ensonifying an object and measuring the scattered field at a single point while varying frequency. From such measurements, one can compute an effective impedance that physically represents the impedance of a half-space that would reflect a normally incident plane wave with the same amplitude as the wave scattered by the object. This effective impedance is shown to be passive and causal when the magnitude of the scattered wave is less than one. The effective impedance is related to reflection and impedance matrices matrices that arise in network formulations for the scattering of plane and spherical waves.

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