Current prototyping frameworks are often prompt-based and heavily rely on designers’ experience. The lack of systematic guidelines in prototyping activities causes unwanted variation in the quality of the prototype. Notably, there is limited, or no prototyping framework exists that enables human factors engineering (HFE) guidelines be part of the early product development process. In this paper, a pre-prototyping framework is proposed to render human-centered design strategies to guide designers before the hands-on prototyping activity starts. The methodology consists of extracting key factors related to prototyping and human factors engineering principles based on an extensive literature review. The key elements are then combined to form the prototyping categories, dimensions (theory), and tools (practice). The resulting prototyping framework can be used to develop prototyping strategies consist of theoretical guidelines and practical tools that are needed during the prototyping of human-centered products. The framework provides systematic guidance to designers in the early stages of the design process so that designers, in particular novices in ergonomics and human factors, can have a head start in building the prototypes in the right direction. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate a walk-through and efficacy of the proposed pre-prototyping framework.

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