The wind industry needs airfoil data for ranges of Angle of Attack (AoA) much wider than those of aviation applications, since large portions of the blades may operate in stalled conditions for a significant part of their lives. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are even more affected by this need, since data sets across the full incidence range of 180 degree are necessary for a correct performance prediction at different tip-speed ratios. However, the relevant technical literature lacks data in deep and post stall regions for nearly every airfoil. Within this context, the present study shows experimental and numerical results for the well-known NACA 0021 airfoil, which is often used for Darrieus VAWT design.
Experimental data were obtained through dedicated wind tunnel measurements of a NACA 0021 airfoil with surface pressure taps, which provided further insight into the pressure coefficient distribution across a wide range of AoAs. The measurements were conducted at two different Reynolds numbers (Re = 140k and Re = 180k): each experiment was performed multiple times to ensure repeatability. Dynamic AoA changes were also investigated at multiple reduced frequencies.
Moreover, dedicated unsteady numerical simulations were carried out on the same airfoil shape to reproduce both the static polars of the airfoil and some relevant dynamic AoA variation cycles tested in the experiments. The solved flow field was then exploited both to get further insight into the flow mechanisms highlighted by the wind tunnel tests and to provide correction factors to discard the influence of the experimental apparatus, making experiments representative of open-field behaviour. The present study is then thought to provide the scientific community with high quality, low-Reynolds airfoil data, which may enable in the near future a more effective design of Darrieus VAWTs.