Combustion with diluted syngas is important for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system that attains high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In syngas diffusion flames, peak flame temperature is higher than that in nature gas flames, so NOx emission is more significant. To achieve low NOx emission, fuel dilution is an effective way. In the present study, Flame structure and emission characteristics were experimentally and numerically studied in various fuel diluted syngas diffusion flames, and H2O, N2 and CO2 were employed as diluents respectively. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the behavior and mechanism of fuel diluted combustion and to provide fundamental data base for the development of syngas combustion techniques. Experiments were conducted by using jet diffusion flames in a model combustor. Flame size, exhaust temperature and emission concentration were measured. It was found that by introducing diluents into fuel stream, the stoichiometric surface was brought inward, namely the flame envelope shrunk due to a relatively low fuel concentration. The exhaust temperature was decreased. The results also indicated that with diluted fuel stream, there was an increase of CO emission and an apparent decrease of NO emission. For the same exhaust temperature, H2O had the most significant influence on NO emission among the three diluents, while CO2 affected CO emission most by inhibiting its oxidation thermally and chemically. Numerical simulations were performed in counterflow diffusion flames by applying Chemkin software. To reveal the mechanisms of various diluents in flames, the detailed chemistry of H2-CO-N2 system was employed. It was found that the concentration of OH radical is important for both NO and CO emissions. The OH concentration is affected not only by the type of diluents but also by the flame temperature, therefore it is determined by the coupling and competition of diluents’ chemical and thermal effects.

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