Present paper is a part of our on-going model development activities with aim to predict formation tendency of gaseous emissions from CFB combustion of different fuels, and especially, fuel-mixtures in real furnaces of various scale. The model is based on detailed description of homogeneous, catalytic, and heterogeneous chemical kinetics, and a sound but simple 1.5D representation of fluid dynamics. Temperature distribution is assumed known. With the tool, different fuels and fuel mixtures can be compared in respect to their tendency to form nitrogen oxides (NOx, N2O). In this paper the model was tested to predict nitrogen oxide emissions from mono- or co-combustion of coal, wood, and sludge. The plants simulated were the 12MWth CFB combustor located at Chalmers Technical University (A = 2.25m2, h = 13.6m) and the pilot scale CFB unit at the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg (d = 0.1m, h = 15m). The results gave reasonable representation of the measured emission data, and reflected correctly to the changes in the fuel characteristics and in the furnace operating conditions in most cases. An extensive laboratory fixed-bed reactor study was also performed in order to obtain input values for the kinetic constants of the catalytic reactions for the reduction and decomposition of nitrogen oxides. In literature, there is a limited data available regarding the catalytic activity of CFB solids during combustion of wood- and waste-derived fuels, especially at co-firing conditions. The kinetics for the NO reduction by CO in the temperature range of 780–910°C was determined to be of the following form (NO = 300ppm, CO = 5000ppm):
when using a bed sample (250–355 μm) taken from the transport zone in the CTH boiler while burning a mixture of wood pellets and a pre-dried municipal sewage sludge. The role of char particle size and shape as well as the incorporation of energy balance on the char reactivity and the formation of nitrogen oxides is further illustrated by single char particle oxidation simulations.
Volume Subject Area:Sustainable Fuels
Topics:Boilers, Emissions, Nitrogen oxides, Fuels, Combustion, Wood products, Co-firing, Furnaces, Chemical kinetics, Coal, Combustion chambers, Energy budget (Physics), Engineering simulation, Fluid dynamics, Model development, Oxidation, Particle size, Particulate matter, Sewage, Shapes, Simulation, Solids, Temperature, Temperature distribution
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