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TECHNICAL PAPERS

J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):465-470. doi:10.1115/1.1289639.

The goal of this study was to expand understanding of strain-generated potential (SGP) in ligamentous or tendinous tissues. Most SGP studies in the past have focused on cartilage or bone. Herein, rabbit patellar tendon (PT) was used as a model. Each patellar tendon had two Ag/AgCl electrodes inserted at axial positions of 1/4 and 1/2 from patellar to tibial insertions. Each specimen was electrically isolated, gripped in a servohydraulic test system, and then subjected to a short session of uniaxial haversine tension (2.5 percent maximum strain) at a frequency of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 Hz. A cyclic (sinusoidal) electrical potential superimposed upon a larger transient (exponentially asymptotic) potential was consistently observed. Upon termination of loading, the cyclic SGP ended, and the shifted baseline of the SGP exponentially decayed and asymptotically returned to a residual potential which over all specimens was not different than the original potential. The transient and cyclic SGPs were frequency dependent (P<0.001,P=0.06, respectively). To our knowledge, this transient portion of the SGP, although theoretically predicted by Suh (1996, Biorheology, 33 , pp. 289–304) and Chen (1996, Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin—Madison) has not been observed in other experiments using different protocols. Additional PTs were dehydrated and the rehydrated in solution at different pH levels. The magnitude of SGPs increased in basic solution (pH 9.5) but diminished in pH 4.7 buffer. This pH dependency suggests that electrokinetics is the dominant mechanism for the transient and cyclic responses of the SGPs, although this study does not provide direct evidence. [S0148-0731(00)00105-9]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):471-478. doi:10.1115/1.1289624.

A novel shear-test device for soft biological tissue, capable of applying simple shear deformations simultaneously in two orthogonal directions while measuring the resulting forces generated in three axes, is described. We validated the device using a synthetic gel, the properties of which were ascertained from independent tensile and rotational shear tests. Material parameters for the gel were fitted using neo-Hookean analytical solutions to the independent test data, and these matched the results from the device. Preliminary results obtained with rat septal myocardium are also presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the apparatus in determining the shear characteristics of living tissue. [S0148-0731(00)00205-3]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):479-487. doi:10.1115/1.1289625.

The lack of an appropriate three-dimensional constitutive relation for stress in passive ventricular myocardium currently limits the utility of existing mathematical models for experimental and clinical applications. Previous experiments used to estimate parameters in three-dimensional constitutive relations, such as biaxial testing of excised myocardial sheets or passive inflation of the isolated arrested heart, have not included significant transverse shear deformation or in-plane compression. Therefore, a new approach has been developed in which suction is applied locally to the ventricular epicardium to introduce a complex deformation in the region of interest, with transmural variations in the magnitude and sign of nearly all six strain components. The resulting deformation is measured throughout the region of interest using magnetic resonance tagging. A nonlinear, three-dimensional, finite element model is used to predict these measurements at several suction pressures. Parameters defining the material properties of this model are optimized by comparing the measured and predicted myocardial deformations. We used this technique to estimate material parameters of the intact passive canine left ventricular free wall using an exponential, transversely isotropic constitutive relation. We tested two possible models of the heart wall: first, that it was homogeneous myocardium, and second, that the myocardium was covered with a thin epicardium with different material properties. For both models, in agreement with previous studies, we found that myocardium was nonlinear and anisotropic with greater stiffness in the fiber direction. We obtained closer agreement to previously published strain data from passive filling when the ventricular wall was modeled as having a separate, isotropic epicardium. These results suggest that epicardium may play a significant role in passive ventricular mechanics. [S0148-0731(00)00305-8]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):488-492. doi:10.1115/1.1289989.

Mechanical forces have been widely recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Since coronary arterial motion modulates both vessel wall mechanics and fluid dynamics, it is hypothesized that certain motion patterns might be atherogenic by generating adverse wall mechanical forces or fluid dynamic environments. To characterize the dynamics of coronary arterial motion and explore its implications in atherogenesis, a system was developed to track the motion of coronary arteries in vivo, and employed to quantify the dynamics of four right coronary arteries (RCA) and eight left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries. The analysis shows that: (a) The motion parameters vary among individuals, with coefficients of variation ranging from 0.25 to 0.59 for axially and temporally averaged values of the parameters; (b) the motion parameters of individual vessels vary widely along the vessel axis, with coefficients of variation as high as 2.28; (c) the LAD exhibits a greater axial variability in torsion, a measure of curve “helicity,” than the RCA; (d) in comparison with the RCA, the LAD experiences less displacement (p=0.009), but higher torsion (p=0.03). These results suggest that: (i) the variability of certain motion parameters, particularly those that exhibit large axial variations, might be related to variations in susceptibility to atherosclerosis among different individuals and vascular regions; and (ii) differences in motion parameters between the RCA and LAD might relate to differences in their susceptibility to atherosclerosis. [S0148-0731(00)00405-2]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):493-497. doi:10.1115/1.1289990.

The flow around rigid cylinders of elliptical cross section placed transverse to Poiseuille flow between parallel plates was simulated to investigate issues related to the tumbling of red blood cells and other particles of moderate aspect ratio in the similar flow in a Field Flow Fractionation (FFF) channel. The torque and transverse force on the cylinder were calculated with the cylinder freely translating, but prevented from rotating, in the flow. The aspect ratios (long axis to short axis) of the elliptical cylinders were 2, 3, 4, and 5. The cylinder was placed transversely at locations of y0/H=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4, where y0 is the distance from the bottom of the channel and H is the height of the channel, and the orientation of the cylinder was varied from 0 to 10 deg with respect to the axis of the channel for a channel Reynolds number of 20. The results showed that equilibrium orientations (indicated by a zero net torque on the cylinder) were possible for high-aspect-ratio cylinders at transverse locations y0/H<0.2. Otherwise, the net torque on the cylinder was positive, indicating that the cylinder would rotate. For cylinders with a stable orientation, however, a transverse lift force existed up to about y0/H=0.25. Thus, a cylinder of neutral or low buoyancy might be lifted with a stable orientation from an initial position near the wall until it reached y0/H<0.2, whereupon it would begin to tumble or oscillate. The dependence of lift and torque on cylinder orientation suggested that neutral or low-buoyancy cylinders may oscillate in both transverse location and angular velocity. Cylinders more dense than the carrier fluid could be in equilibrium both in terms of orientation and transverse location if their sedimentation force matched their lift force for a location y0/H<0.2.[S0148-0731(00)00505-7]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):498-503. doi:10.1115/1.1289997.

Nonlinear thin film rupture has been analyzed by investigating the stability of tear films to finite amplitude disturbances. The dynamics of the liquid film is formulated using the Navier–Stokes equations, including a body force term due to van der Waals attractions. The governing equation was solved by the finite difference method as part of an initial value problem for spatial periodic boundary conditions. The rupture of the tear film covering the cornea and the formation of dry spots is an important phenomenon in various pathological states associated with a dry eye. [S0148-0731(00)00605-1]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):504-510. doi:10.1115/1.1289626.

A closed shell structured eyeball model was developed for predicting the displacements and curvatures in an eyeball due to radial keratotomy. Both the cornea and sclera are modeled as an ellipsoidal cap, and the two caps are connected at the limbus to form a closed shell. The analysis of the number of corneal collagen laminae required for the tissue to be theoretically transversely isotropic was presented. The cornea, as well as the limbus and sclera, is considered as macroscopically homogeneous and isotropic in this study. A procedure to obtain the principal curvature at a point on the exterior surface was established. In the basic formulation, large displacements are contemplated. However, the FORTRAN computer program that was prepared to implement the procedure considers small displacements, and the resulting equations are linear. Although the results from this shell structured eyeball model are fairly good quantitatively, they do show vividly the following qualitative corneal behavior after the operation is performed: The opening of an incision has a V-shape, the radial displacements through the corneal thickness are nearly the same, and the largest in-plane displacement is only one-tenth of the largest radial displacement. [S0148-0731(00)00705-6]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):511-515. doi:10.1115/1.1289996.

In osteoporotic trabecular bone, bone loss occurs by thinning and subsequent resorption of the trabeculae. In this study, we compare the effects of density reductions from uniform thinning of struts or from removal of struts in a random, open-cell, three-dimensional Voronoi structure. The results of this study, combined with those previous studies on other regular and random structures, suggest that the modulus and strength of trabecular bone are reduced more dramatically by density losses from resorption of trabeculae than by those from uniform thinning of trabeculae. [S0148-0731(00)00805-0]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):516-522. doi:10.1115/1.1289995.

The Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used to analyze very complex geometries, such as the pelvis, and complicated constitutive behaviors, such as the heterogeneous, nonlinear, and anisotropic behavior of bone tissue or the noncompression, nonbending character of ligaments. Here, FEM was used to simulate the mechanical ability of several external and internal fixations that stabilize pelvic ring disruptions. A customized pelvic fracture analysis was performed by computer simulation to determine the best fixation method for each individual treatment. The stability of open-book fractures with external fixations at either the iliac crests or the pelvic equator was similar, and increased greatly when they were used in combination. However, external fixations did not effectively stabilize rotationally and vertically unstable fractures. Adequate stabilization was only achieved using an internal pubis fixation with two sacroiliac screws. [S0148-0731(00)00905-5]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):523-527. doi:10.1115/1.1289687.

Errors up to ±30 mm in determining the COP with piezoelectric force plates have been reported in the literature. To compensate for these errors, correction formulas were proposed, based on measurements with single point loads. In this paper, it will be shown that the errors in the COP depend on the load distribution. Two examples are presented: (1) simulated balance study, and (2) different pressure patterns during walking. Accurate corrections can only be made for forces distributed over a small area. Errors are expected to be overcompensated if there are only a few pressure peaks separated by large distances. These errors can be as large as the statistical errors (5.8±3.7 mm) after compensation. For certain situations, it is probably better not to use correction formulas. [S0148-0731(00)01005-0]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):528-533. doi:10.1115/1.1289992.

The use of registration techniques to determine motion transformations noninvasively has become more widespread with the increased availability of the necessary software. In this study, three surface registration techniques were used to generate carpal bone kinematic results from a single cadaveric wrist specimen. Surface contours were extracted from specimen computed tomography volume images of the forearm, carpal, and metacarpal bones in four arbitrary positions. Kinematic results from each of three registration techniques were compared with results derived from multiple spherical markers fixed to the specimen. Kinematic accuracy was found to depend on the registration method and bone size and shape. In general, rotation errors of the capitate and scaphoid were less than 0.5 deg for all three techniques. Rotation errors for the other bones were generally less than 2 deg, although error for the trapezoid was greater than 2 deg in one technique. Translation errors of the bones were generally less than 1 mm, although errors of the trapezoid and trapezium were greater than 1 mm for two techniques. Tradeoffs existed in each registration method between image processing time and overall kinematic accuracy. Markerless bone registration (MBR) can provide accurate measurements of carpal kinematics and can be used to study the noninvasive, three-dimensional in vivo kinematics of the wrist and other skeletal joints. [S0148-0731(00)01105-5]

Topics: Rotation , Bone , Errors , Motion
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):534-540. doi:10.1115/1.1289993.

The results of a Monte Carlo simulation of laser beam propagation in turbid media are presented. The study was performed to determine whether using a focused beam or multiple beams instead of a single collimated beam could improve subsurface laser energy delivery in biological tissue. A parametric study was carried out to determine both the laser fluence at a target depth and the ratio of fluence at the target over surface fluence as a function of tissue properties and the mode of energy delivery. It was found that the reduced scattering coefficient was the primary determinant as to whether multibeam or focused beam delivery could be effective. A focused beam was found to be extremely effective in increasing fluence at the target if the dimensionless reduced scattering coefficient was less than 2. The delivered fluence, however, was found to be extremely sensitive to tissue properties. A five-beam laser system was found to be less effective at increasing fluence at the target than a focused beam; but the fluence delivered by a five-beam system was far less sensitive to tissue properties, thereby making accurate dosimetry more feasible. [S0148-0731(00)01205-X]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):541-544. doi:10.1115/1.1289994.

A thermodynamic heat flow model for the human body gives survival time as a function of water temperature, assuming constant specific heat and thermal conductance. [S0148-0731(00)01305-4]

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL BRIEF

J Biomech Eng. 2000;122(5):545-547. doi:10.1115/1.1289991.

A separate investigation of swimming endurance has led to a family of expressions relating maximal human locomotor activity to time and/or distance having such wide application to medicine, physiology, and sports as to merit independent publication. Specifically, variations of a single racing equation with one variable parameter suffice to predict record times, speeds, energy, power, and endurance accurately for cycling, running, and swimming, provided only that performance be categorized as steady-state, aerobic effort. [S0148-0731(00)01405-9]

Topics: Equations , Physiology
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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