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RESEARCH PAPERS

J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):1-5. doi:10.1115/1.3138298.

A brief review is given of some of the author’s biomechanical research carried out during the past 30 yr. Part of this research was done in collaboration with the late Professor Herbert R. Lissner, after whom the Bioengineering Award is named.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):6-11. doi:10.1115/1.3138308.

Torsional resonance experiments performed on wet human compact bone disclose effects due to couple stress. The characteristic length, which is an additional material coefficient which appears in couple-stress theory, is of the order of the size of osteons and appears to be smaller at high frequencies than at low frequencies. The presence of couple-stress effects implies a reduction in the stress concentration factor around holes, particularly small holes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):12-20. doi:10.1115/1.3138297.

The age-related material properties of developing immature canine bone were determined for the femora, tibiae, humeri, radii, and ulnae in animals from 1 wk of age to maturity. These properties included bone geometry changes, material tissue properties, and qualitative and quantitative morphological evaluations. All bones exhibited a two-phase growth cycle, an initial rapid phase (20 wk) followed by a substantially slower growth to maturation (48 wk). All properties showed age-related changes except bone tissue strain to failure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):21-27. doi:10.1115/1.3138299.

In this first part of a two-part report, some aspects of the volumetric behavior of bone cement during its curing process are examined as a prelude to an analysis for the transient and residual stresses and displacements in stem fixation systems. Experiments show that stress generation in the cement is associated with its temperature while curing and that during the cooling phase, the stresses are mainly due to thermal as opposed to bulk shrinkage. The appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion of bone cement has been evaluated from measurements in a simulated fixation system in conjunction with a thermoelastic analysis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):28-37. doi:10.1115/1.3138300.

In this second part of a two-part report, an idealized model of the stem fixation system is analyzed to determine the adverse effects of the thermal stresses and displacements of bone cement during its curing process. The Shaffer-Levitsky stress-rate strain-rate law for chemically hardening material has been used. The results show that if the cement is surrounded by cancellous bone, as opposed to cortical bone, then transient tensile circumferential stresses in the cement and similar radial stresses at the stem/cement interface are generated. The former may cause flaws and voids within the still curing cement, while the latter may cause gaps at the interface.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):38-44. doi:10.1115/1.3138301.

The selection of body segment parameters (BSPs) is a difficult yet essential task in many biomechanical studies. The methods used to date—cadaver, reaction board, mathematical modeling, gamma scanning, and kinematics—all have a number of drawbacks. The purpose of the present paper is to present an alternative method, based on kinematic data and optimization theory, for selecting BSPs. The design variables are the BSPs and the objective function to be minimized is based on the difference between calculated and measured distal extremity kinetics, while the equality constraints are based on Newtonian principles as well as bilateral symmetry of the BSPs. Three different activities are used to generate “optimal” sets of BSPs and these values are different, but not markedly so, from cadaver values. Further detailed investigation appears warranted.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):45-49. doi:10.1115/1.3138302.

Respiratory heat loss was measured during cold water (5–6° C) excursions to depths of 300 m. Losses were computed with and without respiratory gas heating when wearing a diving helmet in current commercial and Service use. A magnitude of heat loss, sufficient to cause undue stress to the respiratory tract, was observed even with gas heating provided, particularly at maximum depth. If the hyperbaric gas is both heated and humidified to a maximum comfort level then respiratory gains in the order of 40 W are possible at 250 m. This technique of utilizing warm wet gas introduced into the respiratory tract was tested as a rewarming technique following immersion in cold water (4–5° C) to the limit of peripheral endurance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):50-56. doi:10.1115/1.3138303.

An investigation has been made of the source and magnitude of anisotropic material properties of cancellous bone in the proximal epiphysis of the human tibia. Results are reported for stiffness measurements made in three orthogonal directions on 21 cubes of cancellous bone before testing to failure along one of the three principal axes. The structure is approximately transversely isotropic. Strength and stiffness are linear with area fraction for loading along the isotropic axis. Strength is proportional to stiffness for all directions. A finite element model is proposed, based on experimental observations, which enables one to predict the elastic constants of cylindrically structured cancellous bone in the tibia from morphological measurements in the transverse plane.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):57-62. doi:10.1115/1.3138304.

The rate of transcapillary exchange of substances delivered to or removed from the tissue by blood depends on the concentration difference across the capillary wall. This concentration difference results in an osmotic effect that can have considerable influence on capillary-tissue fluid exchange. However, fluid exchange also affects the plasma and tissue concentrations of the various substances. Therefore, the determination of substrate concentration profiles involves an interaction of many microcirculatory phenomena, including capillary-tissue fluid exchange. In this paper a general mathematical model is presented that describes the interaction of multiple exchangeable solutes. The resulting equations are solved to give the concentration profiles of different substances and their effect on fluid exchange for various normal and pathological situations of physiological interest.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL BRIEFS

J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):63-66. doi:10.1115/1.3138305.

The transmission of impact forces in a straight leg from the foot to the level of the greater trochanter was investigated by a two-degree of freedom linear damped-spring model. Foot ground forces measured during a vertical jump and accelerations measured at the level of the greater trochanter were used as model input. The model elastic constant and damping coefficient were determined by solving the dynamic equations of the system. The model was used to predict peak acceleration values for a given input force. Satisfactory prediction of the magnitudes of the first two peaks of the acceleration (maximum difference of 3 percent) was achieved in the two subjects studied.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):66-68. doi:10.1115/1.3138306.

The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of flow in the region of symmetrical bifurcations having branch-to-trunk area ratios of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 during steady and pulsatile flow. Flow was visualized with neutrally bouyant particles. Secondary flow was not observed in the branches during either steady or pulsatile flow when the branch-to-trunk area ratio was 0.4. Secondary velocity patterns were not observed in the branches with branch-to-trunk area ratios of 0.8 and 1.2 during pulsatile flow, although they were observed during steady flow. It may be inaccurate, therefore, to characterize pulsatile flow at an instantaneous Reynolds number on the basis of steady flow at the same Reynolds number.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):68-71. doi:10.1115/1.3138307.

Pulmonary alveolar geometry in histological sections prepared by quick-freezing the lung, with freeze-substitution of ice, fixation of the dry lung with osmium tetroxide in nonaqueous and nonpolar solvent and celloidin embedding is remarkably different from the geometry seen in preparations made by instilling aqueous aldehyde or osmium tetroxide solution in the airways. The alveolar walls in the quick-frozen lung are linear; those in the others are wrinkled. The difference was demonstrated to be due to incomplete fixation of elastin.

Topics: Freezing , Ice , Geometry , Lung
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

BOOK REVIEWS

J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):72-73. doi:10.1115/1.3138309.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):73. doi:10.1115/1.3138310.
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Abstract
Topics: Biomechanics , Sports
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):73. doi:10.1115/1.3138311.
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Abstract
Topics: Biomechanics , Sports
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):73. doi:10.1115/1.3138312.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):73-74. doi:10.1115/1.3138313.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):74-75. doi:10.1115/1.3138315.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):75. doi:10.1115/1.3138316.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):75-76. doi:10.1115/1.3138317.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):76. doi:10.1115/1.3138318.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):76. doi:10.1115/1.3138319.
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Abstract
Topics: Solid mechanics
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):77. doi:10.1115/1.3138320.
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Abstract
Topics: Biorheology
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J Biomech Eng. 1982;104(1):77-78. doi:10.1115/1.3138321.
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Abstract
Topics: Biomechanics
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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