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Technical Brief

Mechanical Response of Human Muscle at Intermediate Strain Rates

[+] Author and Article Information
Xuedong Zhai, Yizhou Nie, Hangjie Liao

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Eric A. Nauman

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907;
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Roy J. Lycke

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Weinong W. Chen

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907;
School of Materials Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received February 11, 2019; published online March 5, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Brittany Coats.

J Biomech Eng 141(4), 044506 (Mar 05, 2019) (5 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1300; doi: 10.1115/1.4042900 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised February 11, 2019

We experimentally determined the tensile stress–strain response of human muscle along fiber direction and compressive stress–strain response transverse to fiber direction at intermediate strain rates (100–102/s). A hydraulically driven material testing system with a dynamic testing mode was used to perform the tensile and compressive experiments on human muscle tissue. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates (below 100/s) were also conducted to investigate the strain-rate effects over a wider range. The experimental results show that, at intermediate strain rates, both the human muscle's tensile and compressive stress–strain responses are nonlinear and strain-rate sensitive. Human muscle also exhibits a stiffer and stronger tensile mechanical behavior along fiber direction than its compressive mechanical behavior along the direction transverse to fiber direction. An Ogden model with two material constants was adopted to describe the nonlinear tensile and compressive behaviors of human muscle.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the human muscle samples

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup: (a) hydraulically driven materials testing machine and (b) grippers for tensile experiments

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Fig. 3

Representative data for tensile experiments at strain rate of 100/s: (a) original force-time profiles from top, bottom load cell and calibration experiment without specimen and (b) actual force-time profiles at top and bottom ends of specimen together with the strain-time profile

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Fig. 4

Representative data for compressive experiments at strain rate of 90/s: (a) original force-time profiles from upper, lower load cell and calibration experiment without specimen and (b) actual force-time profiles at top and bottom ends of specimen together with the strain-time profile

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Fig. 5

Stress–strain curves of human muscle at various strain rates: (a) average tensile stress–strain curves along fiber direction with standard deviation and (b) average compressive stress–strain curves transverse to fiber direction with standard deviation

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Fig. 6

Strain rate effect of human muscle under along-fiber tensile loading and cross-fiber compressive loading: (a) strain rate effect of tensile response of human muscle along fiber direction and (b) strain rate effect of compressive response of human muscle transverse to fiber direction

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Fig. 7

Ogden model fit of the human muscle's stress–strain response: (a) stress–strain response of human muscle parallel to fiber direction and (b) stress–strain response of human muscle perpendicular to fiber direction

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