The path to deliver the most realistic follower load for a lumbar spine in standing posture: A finite element study

[+] Author and Article Information
Han Zhang

Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China

Weiping Zhu

Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4042438 History: Received March 14, 2018; Revised December 26, 2018


A spine is proven to be subjected to a follower load which is a compressive load of physiologic magnitude acting on the whole spine. The path of the follower load approximates the tangent to the curve of the spine in in vivo neutral standing posture. However, the specific path location of the follower load is still unclear. The aim of this study is to find out the most realistic location of the follower load path (FLP) for a lumbar spine in standing. A 3D non-linear finite element model (FEM) of lumbosacral vertebrae (L1-S1) with consideration of the calibrated material properties was established and validated by comparing with the experimental data. We show that the shape of the lumbosacral spine is strongly affected by the location of FLP. An evident nonlinear relationship between the FLP location and the kinematic response of the L1-S1 lumbosacral spine exists. The FLP at 5 and 2.5mm posterior to the curve connecting the center of the vertebral bodies delivers the most realistic location in standing for healthy people and patients having low back pains, respectively. Moreover, the 'sweeping' method introduced in this study can be applicable to all individualized FEM to determine the location of FLP.

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