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Research Papers

Design of a Novel Electrode of Radiofrequency Ablation for Large Tumors: In Vitro Validation and Evaluation

[+] Author and Article Information
Zheng Fang

School of Mechanical and Power Engineering,
East China University of
Science and Technology,
Shanghai 200237, China
e-mail: jasonfang2014@hotmail.com

Micheal A. J. Moser

Department of Surgery,
University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon SK S7N 0W8, Canada
e-mail: mam305@mail.usask.ca

Edwin Zhang

Division of Vascular and
Interventional Radiology,
Department of Medical Imaging,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON M5T 1W7, Canada
e-mail: ezhang@ualberta.ca

Wenjun Zhang

Fellow ASME
School of Mechanical and Power Engineering,
East China University of
Science and Technology,
Shanghai 200237, China
e-mail: chris.zhang@usask.ca

Bing Zhang

Mem. ASME
Tumor Ablation Group,
Biomedical Science and
Technology Research Center,
School of Mechatronic
Engineering and Automation,
Shanghai University,
Shanghai 200444, China
e-mail: bingzhang84@shu.edu.cn

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received August 28, 2018; final manuscript received November 13, 2018; published online January 18, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ram Devireddy.

J Biomech Eng 141(3), 031007 (Jan 18, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1392; doi: 10.1115/1.4042179 History: Received August 28, 2018; Revised November 13, 2018

In a prior study, we proposed a novel monopolar expandable electrode (MEE) for use in radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The purpose of our work was to now validate and evaluate this electrode using on in vitro experimental model and computer simulation. Two commercially available RF electrodes (conventional electrode (CE) and umbrella electrode (UE)) were used to compare the ablation results with the novel MEE using an in vitro egg white model and in vivo liver tumor model to verify the efficacy of MEE in the large tumor ablation, respectively. The sharp increase in impedance during RFA procedures was taken as the termination of RFA protocols. In the in vitro egg white experiment, the ablation volume of MEE, CE, and UE was 75.3±1.6 cm3, 2.7±0.4 cm3, and 12.4±1.8 cm3 (P < 0.001), respectively. Correspondingly, the sphericity was 88.1±0.9%, 12.9±1.3%, and 62.0±3.0% (P < 0.001), respectively. A similar result was obtained in the in vitro egg white computer simulation. In the liver tumor computer simulation, the volume and sphericity of ablation zone generated by MEE, CE, and UE were 36.6 cm3 and 93.6%, 3.82 cm3 and 16.9%, and 13.5 cm3 and 56.7%, respectively. In summary, MEE has the potential to achieve complete ablation in the treatment of large tumors (>3 cm in diameter) compared to CE and UE due to the larger electrode–tissue interface and more round shape of hooks.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Images of (a) the proposed electrode (MEE), (b) the conventional electrode, and (c) the umbrella electrode used in the study

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Fig. 2

Dimensions (out of scale and in mm) of the 3D (a) in vitro egg white RFA model and (b) in vivo liver tumor RFA model

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Fig. 3

Thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of egg white, healthy liver tissue, and liver tumor used in the study

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the in vitro egg white RFA experiment and impedance measuring system

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Fig. 5

Impedance changes during the in vitro experiment and computer simulation using egg white for (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE, respectively, (each gray solid line means an experiment, and the dark solid means the average of three experimental results), and (d) the applied power delivered in the in vitro experiment and computer simulation

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Fig. 6

Representative images of ablation zones of the in vitro experiment for (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE and computer simulation for (d) CE, (e) UE, and (f) MEE, respectively

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Fig. 7

Initial potential distributions in the egg white computer model (in V) for (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE from front view and for (d) CE, (e) UE, and (f) MEE from top view

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Fig. 8

Temperature distributions per minute and at the last moment in the egg white RFA procedure along the middle line of active tip or hooks for (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE. Electric field strength at the initial and last moment along the middle line of active tip or hooks for (d) CE, (e) UE, and (f) MEE.

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Fig. 9

Impedance changes during the liver tumor RFA procedures for CE, UE, and MEE, respectively

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Fig. 10

The tissue death rates of (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE in the liver tumor RFA simulation

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Fig. 11

Initial potential distributions in the liver tumor computer model (in V) for (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE from front view and for (d) CE, (e) UE, and (f) MEE from top view

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Fig. 12

Temperature distributions per minute and at the last moment in the liver tumor RFA procedure along the middle line of active tip or hooks for (a) CE, (b) UE, and (c) MEE. Electric field strength at the initial and last moment along the middle line of active tip or hooks for (d) CE, (e) UE, and (f) MEE.

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