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Technical Brief

Test-retest reliability of non-linear methods to assess walking dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter Raffalt

Julius Wolff Institute for Biomechanics and Musculoskeletal Regeneration, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
peter-christian.raffalt@charite.de

Tine Alkjaer

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark; The Parker Institute, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Frederiksberg, Denmark
talkjaer@sund.ku.dk

Bjarki Brynjólfsson

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
s123025@student.dtu.dk

Louise Jørgensen

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
lullo_91@msn.com

Cecilie R Bartholdy

The Parker Institute, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Cecilie.Roedgaard.Bartholdy@regionh.dk

Marius Henriksen

The Parker Institute, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Marius.Henriksen@regionh.dk

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041044 History: Received October 11, 2017; Revised July 23, 2018

Abstract

The present study investigated the day-to-day reliability (quantified by the absolute and relative reliability) of nonlinear methods that assess human locomotion dynamics. Twenty-four participants completed 5 minutes of treadmill walking at self-selected preferred speed on two separate days. Lower limb kinematics were recorded at 100Hz and hip, knee and ankle joint angles, three dimensional sacrum marker displacement and stride time intervals were extracted for 170 consecutive strides. The largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension were calculated for the joint angle and sacrum displacement data using three different state space reconstruction methods (group average, test-retest average, individual time delay and embedding dimension). Sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis were applied to the stride time interval time series. Relative reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients and absolute reliability was determined by measurement error (ME). The group average state space reconstruction method resulted in the best relative and absolute reliability of the LyE parameter when compared to the individual and test-retest average methods. The detrended fluctuation analysis exhibited good reliability, while sample entropy showed poor reliability. The results comprise a reference material that can inspire and guide future studies of non-linear gait dynamics.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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