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Research Papers

Distribution of Brain Strain in the Cerebrum for Laboratory Impacts to Ice Hockey Goaltender Masks

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Michio Clark

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
University College Dublin,
Belfield,
Dublin 4, Ireland;
School of Human Kinetics,
University of Ottawa,
200 Lees Avenue, Room A106,
Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
e-mail: michio.clark@ucd.ie

Andrew Post

School of Human Kinetics,
University of Ottawa,
200 Lees Avenue, Room A106,
Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada;
Division of Neurosurgery,
St. Michael's Hospital,
30 Bond Street,
Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada

T. Blaine Hoshizaki

School of Human Kinetics,
University of Ottawa,
200 Lees Avenue, Room A106,
Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada

Michael D. Gilchrist

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
University College Dublin,
Belfield,
Dublin 4, Ireland;
School of Human Kinetics,
University of Ottawa,
200 Lees Avenue, Room A106,
Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 23, 2018; final manuscript received June 13, 2018; published online September 25, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Barclay Morrison.

J Biomech Eng 140(12), 121007 (Sep 25, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-18-1044; doi: 10.1115/1.4040605 History: Received January 23, 2018; Revised June 13, 2018

Concussions are among the most common injuries sustained by goaltenders. Concussive injuries are characterized by impairment to neurological function which can affect many different brain regions. Understanding how different impact loading conditions (event type and impact site) affect the brain tissue response may help identify what kind of impacts create a high risk of injury to specific brain regions. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different impact conditions on the distribution of brain strain for ice hockey goaltender impacts. An instrumented headform was fitted with an ice hockey goaltender mask and impacted under a protocol which was developed using video analysis of real world ice hockey goaltender concussions for three different impact events (collision, puck, and fall). The resulting kinematic response served as input into the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model (UCDBTM), which calculated maximum principal strain (MPS) in the cerebrum. Strain subsets were then determined and analyzed. Resulting peak strains (0.124–0.328) were found to be within the range for concussion reported in the literature. The results demonstrated that falls and collisions produced larger strain subsets in the cerebrum than puck impacts which is likely a reflection of longer impact duration for falls and collisions than puck impacts. For each impact event, impact site was also found to produce strain subsets of varying size and configuration. The results of this study suggest that the location and number of brain regions which can be damaged depend on the loading conditions of the impact.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Examples of a perspective grid calibration used in the video analysis of ice hockey goaltender concussions to determine: (a) velocity and (b) orientation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Reference used to identify impact location illustrating the 12 sectors (each 30 deg) and six levels (evenly spaced) [41,43]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Impact sites of an event specific impact test protocol for ice hockey goaltender masks: (a) collision R3-C, (b) collision R2-E, (c) collision R1-B, (d) puck impact Front-D, (e) puck impact R1-B, (f) puck impact R3-D, (g) fall Rear-D, (h) fall L4-D, and (i) fall R3-D [45]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The ten regions of the brain analyzed by the UCDBTM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

NOCSAE headform with unbiased neckform attached to movable locking base on the sliding table illustrating co-ornate directions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Ice hockey goaltender mask used for all helmeted conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Differences in location of the homogenous subsets (1 = highest strain subset, 2 = second highest strain subset, 3 = third highest strain subset, 4 = fourth highest strain subset, 5 = fifth highest strain subset, 6 = sixth highest strain subset) within the brain for falls per impact location: (a) Rear-D, (b) L4-D, and (c) R3-D

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Differences in location of the homogenous subsets (1 = highest strain subset, 2 = second highest strain subset, 3 = third highest strain subset, 4 = fourth highest strain subset, 5 = fifth highest strain subset, 6 = sixth highest strain subset, 7 = seventh highest strain subset) within the brain for puck impacts per impact location: (a) Front-D, (b) R1-B, and (c) R3-D

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Differences in location of the homogenous subsets (1 = highest strain subset, 2 = second highest strain subset, 3 = third highest strain subset, 4 = fourth highest strain subset, 5 = fifth highest strain subset) within the brain for collisions per impact location: (a) R3-C, (b) R2-E, and (c) R1-B

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Differences in location of the homogenous subsets (1 = highest strain subset, 2 = second highest strain subset, 3 = third highest strain subset, 4 = fourth highest strain subset) within the brain per impact event: (a) fall, (b) puck impact, and (c) collision

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