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research-article

Distribution of Brain Strain in the Cerebrum for Ice Hockey Goaltender Impacts

[+] Author and Article Information
James Michio Clark

School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 200 Lees Ave., room A106, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada
michio.clark@ucd.ie

Andrew Post

School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 200 Lees Ave., room A106, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada; St. Michael's Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, 30 Bond St, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada
apost@uottawa.ca

T. Blaine Hoshizaki

School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 200 Lees Ave., room A106, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada
thoshiza@uottawa.ca

Michael D. Gilchrist

School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 200 Lees Ave., room A106, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada
michael.gilchrist@ucd.ie

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4040605 History: Received January 23, 2018; Revised June 13, 2018

Abstract

Concussions are among the most common injuries sustained by goaltenders. Concussive injuries are characterized by impairment to neurological function which can affect many different brain regions. Understanding how different impact loading conditions (event type and impact site) affect the brain tissue response may help identify what kind of impacts create a high risk of injury to specific brain regions. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different impact conditions on the distribution of brain strain for ice hockey goaltender impacts. An instrumented headform was fitted with an ice hockey goaltender mask and impacted under a protocol which was developed using video analysis of real world ice hockey goaltender concussions for three different impact events (collision, puck, and fall). The resulting kinematic response served as input into the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model, which calculated maximum principal strain in the cerebrum. Strain subsets were then determined and analyzed. Resulting peak strains (0.124 - 0.328) were found to be within the range for concussion reported in the literature. The results demonstrated that falls and collisions produced larger strain subsets in the cerebrum than puck impacts which is likely a reflection of longer impact duration for falls and collisions than puck impacts. For each impact event, impact site was also found to produce strain subsets of varying size and configuration. The results of this study suggest that the location and number of brain regions which can be damaged depend on the loading conditions of the impact.

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