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research-article

Comparative Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Polymeric Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valves' Hemodynamics and Structural Mechanics

[+] Author and Article Information
Ram Ghosh

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8151, USA
ramghosh7@gmail.com

Gil Marom

School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel; Biomedical Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook 11794, NY, USA
maromgil@tau.ac.il

Oren Rotman

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8151, USA
orenrotman1@gmail.com

Marvin J. Slepian

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
chairman.syns@gmail.com

Saurabh Prabhakar

ANSYS Fluent India Pvt Ltd., MIDC, Plot No. 34/1, Rajiv Gandhi IT Park, Hinjewadi, Pune 411057, India
saurabh.prabhakar@ansys.com

Marc Horner

ANSYS, Inc., 1007 Church St, Suite 250, Evanston, IL 60201, USA
marc.horner@ansys.com

Danny Bluestein

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8151, USA
danny.bluestein@stonybrook.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4040600 History: Received November 06, 2017; Revised May 30, 2018

Abstract

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an effective alternative to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk elderly patients with calcified aortic valve disease. All currently FDA-approved TAVR devices use tissue valves that were adapted to but not specifically designed for TAVR use. Emerging clinical evidence indicates that these valves may get damaged during crimping and deployment- leading to valvular calcification, thrombotic complications, and limited durability. This impedes the expected expansion of TAVR to lower-risk and younger patients. Viable polymeric valves have the potential to overcome such limitations. We have developed a polymeric SAVR valve, which was optimized to reduce leaflet stresses and offer a thromboresistance profile similar to that of a tissue valve. This study compares the polymeric SAVR valve's hemodynamic performance and mechanical stresses to a new version of the valve- specifically designed for TAVR. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were utilized and the valves' hemodynamics, flexural stresses, strains, orifice area, and wall shear stresses were compared. The TAVR valve had 42% larger opening area and 27% higher flow rate versus the SAVR valve, while wall shear stress distribution and mechanical stress magnitudes were of the same order, demonstrating the enhanced performance of the TAVR valve prototype. The TAVR valve FSI simulation and Vivitro pulse duplicator experiments were compared in terms of the leaflets' kinematics and the effective orifice area. The numerical methodology presented can be further used as a predictive tool for valve design optimization for enhanced hemodynamics and durability.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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