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Research Papers

Comparison of Heat Transfer Enhancement Between Magnetic and Gold Nanoparticles During HIFU Sonication

[+] Author and Article Information
Surendra B. Devarakonda

Department of Mechanical,
Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH 45221

Matthew R. Myers

Division of Applied Mechanics,
Center for Devices and
Radiological Health,
U.S. Food and Drug Administration,
Silver Spring, MD 20993

Rupak K. Banerjee

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical,
Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering and
Applied Science,
University of Cincinnati,
593 Rhodes Hall, ML 0072,
Cincinnati, OH 45221
e-mail: Rupak.Banerjee@uc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 10, 2017; final manuscript received April 22, 2018; published online May 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Spencer P. Lake. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J Biomech Eng 140(8), 081003 (May 24, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1582; doi: 10.1115/1.4040120 History: Received December 10, 2017; Revised April 22, 2018

Long procedure times and collateral damage remain challenges in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) medical procedures. Magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) and gold nanoparticles (gNPs) have the potential to reduce the acoustic intensity and/or exposure time required in these procedures. In this research, we investigated relative advantages of using gNPs and mNPs during HIFU thermal-ablation procedures. Tissue-mimicking phantoms containing embedded thermocouples (TCs) and physiologically acceptable concentrations (0.0625% and 0.125%) of gNPs were sonicated at acoustic powers of 5.2 W, 9.2 W, and 14.5 W, for 30 s. It was observed that when the concentration of gNPs was doubled from 0.0625% to 0.125%, the temperature rise increased by 80% for a power of 5.2 W. For a fixed concentration (0.0625%), the energy absorption was 1.7 times greater for mNPs than gNPs for a power of 5.2 W. Also, for the power of 14.5 W, the sonication time required to generate a lesion volume of 50 mm3 decreased by 1.4 times using mNPs, compared with gNPs, at a concentration of 0.0625%. We conclude that mNPs are more likely than gNPs to produce a thermal enhancement in HIFU ablation procedures.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the transducer and TMM phantom embedded with 6 (T1-T6) TCs. The inner diameter of the phantom is 2.5 cm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of temperature rise (°C) with time (sec) for gNPs (0.0625% and 0125% concentrations) and mNPs (0.0047%, 0.047%, and 0.0625%* concentrations) for (a) 5.2, (b) 9.2, and (c) 14.5 W acoustic powers. The temperature rise values for 0.0625% mNPs concentration have been obtained by extrapolation (*). The sonication and the cooling periods are 30 s and 20 s, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of peak focal temperature rise (°C) of gNPs (0.0625% and 0125% concentrations) and mNPs (0.0047%, 0.047%, and 0.0625%* concentrations) for 5.2, 9.2, and 14.5 W acoustic powers. The peak temperature rise values for 0.0625% mNPs concentration have been obtained by extrapolation (*). Measurements for each time point have been conducted in triplicate (n = 3). -represents comparison of peak temperature rise (° C) for same (0.0625%) concentration of mNPs and gNPs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sonication time required to achieve a lesion volume of 50 mm3 (1.3 mm in radial direction and 14 mm in axial direction) for mNPs (concentrations of 0.0047%, 0.047%, and 0.0625%*), gNPs (0.0625% and 0.125%), and no NPs (0%) for 5.2, 9.2, and 14.5 W acoustic powers. The values for 0.0625% mNPs concentration have been calculated using the extrapolated temperature data (*). Calculations for each point have been conducted in triplicate (n = 3). Y-axis is in logarithmic scale.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Sonication time needed to obtain a lesion volume of 50 mm3 for a concentration of 0.0625% at 14.5 W acoustic power for mNPs and gNPs

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