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Research Papers

Internal Viscosity-Dependent Margination of Red Blood Cells in Microfluidic Channels

[+] Author and Article Information
Faisal Ahmed

Wallace H. Coulter Department
of Biomedical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: faisal.ahmedbd@gmail.com

Marmar Mehrabadi

George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: marmar@gatech.edu

Zixiang Liu

George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: zxliu@gatech.edu

Gilda A. Barabino

Professor
Grove School of Engineering,
The City College of New York,
Steinman Hall, Suite 142,
160 Convent Avenue,
New York, NY 10031
e-mail: gbarabino@ccny.cuny.edu

Cyrus K. Aidun

Professor
George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Parker H. Petit Institute for
Bioengineering and Bioscience,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Love Building, Room 320,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: cyrus.aidun@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 9, 2017; final manuscript received February 6, 2018; published online April 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nathan Sniadecki.

J Biomech Eng 140(6), 061013 (Apr 30, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1250; doi: 10.1115/1.4039897 History: Received June 09, 2017; Revised February 06, 2018

Cytoplasmic viscosity-dependent margination of red blood cells (RBC) for flow inside microchannels was studied using numerical simulations, and the results were verified with microfluidic experiments. Wide range of suspension volume fractions or hematocrits was considered in this study. Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid-phase coupled with spectrin-link method for RBC membrane deformation was used for accurate analysis of cell margination. RBC margination behavior shows strong dependence on the internal viscosity of the RBCs. At equilibrium, RBCs with higher internal viscosity marginate closer to the channel wall and the RBCs with normal internal viscosity migrate to the central core of the channel. Same margination pattern has been verified through experiments conducted with straight channel microfluidic devices. Segregation between RBCs of different internal viscosity is enhanced as the shear rate and the hematocrit increases. Stronger separation between normal RBCs and RBCs with high internal viscosity is obtained as the width of a high aspect ratio channel is reduced. Overall, the margination behavior of RBCs with different internal viscosities resembles with the margination behavior of RBCs with different levels of deformability. Observations from this work will be useful in designing microfluidic devices for separating the subpopulations of RBCs with different levels of deformability that appear in many hematologic diseases such as sickle cell disease (SCD), malaria, or cancer.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Microchannel configuration

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Fig. 2

Single cell simulation cases: (a) snapshots at initial time-step for both  Rec=4  and  Rec=8  cases; (b) snapshot at a time-step after the cells have reached their equilibrium time-step for the  Rec=4  case; (c) snapshot at a time-step after the cells have reached their equilibrium time-step for the  Rec=8  case. N1, normal 1; N2, normal 2; S1, sickle 1; S2, sickle 2.

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Fig. 8

Effects of shear rate on cell margination: (a) shows average nondimensional lateral displacement of RBCs and (b) shows distance between average trajectories of sickle and normal RBCs

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Fig. 9

Effects of volume fraction on cell margination: (a) shows average nondimensional lateral displacement of RBCs and (b) shows distance between average trajectories of sickle and normal RBCs

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Fig. 7

Effects of confinement ratio on margination: (a) shows average nondimensional lateral displacement of cells and (b) shows distance between lateral displacement of sickle and normal cells

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Fig. 11

Variation of  ERstiff with Rec compared between simulations and experiments for volume fraction of  φ=10% 

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Fig. 4

Nondimensional lateral trajectories of individual cells: (a) for  Rec=4  and (b) for  Rec=8

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Fig. 3

Parachuting of RBC in microcapillary flow: (a) snapshots of RBC shape at three timepoints and (b) variation of RBC deformation with flow velocity

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Fig. 6

Effects of wall shear rate  (γ˙w)  and RBC capillary number  (CaG)  on cell-free layer thickness

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Fig. 5

Internal viscosity-dependent margination of RBCs for the case of  60 μm×60 μm×30 μm  and   Rec=10

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Fig. 10

Cell population distribution (PD %) across the width of channel at a specific lengthwise location. The width is divided in three segments (outlet 1, outlet 2a, and outlet 2b) by two partitions, one located at 12 μm and another located at 28 μm. In each segment, the numbers represent the percentage of cell population of each cell type in that segment.

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