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research-article

Changes in Intervertebral Disc Mechanical Behavior during Early Degeneration

[+] Author and Article Information
C.P.L. Paul

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
c.p.paul@amc.uva.nl

Kaj S. Emanuel

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
k.emanuel@vumc.nl

Idsart Kingma

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
idsartkingma@gmail.com

Albert J. van der Veen

Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
albertj.vanderveen@gmail.com

Roderick M. Holewijn

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
roderick.holewijn@gmail.com

Pieter-Paul A. Vergroesen

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
pvergroesen@gmail.com

Peter M. van de Ven

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
p.vandeven@vumc.nl

Margriet G. Mullender

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
m.mullender@vumc.nl

Marco N. Helder

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
m.helder@vumc.nl

Theodoor H. Smit

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsDepartment of Medical Biology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
t.h.smit@amc.uva.nl

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4039890 History: Received September 22, 2017; Revised March 22, 2018

Abstract

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is described by loss of height and hydration. However, in the first stage of IVD degeneration this loss has not yet occurred. In the current study, we use an ex vivo degeneration model to quantify changes in the IVDs mechanical behavior. We assess whether these changes, characterized by stretched-exponential fitting, qualify as markers for early degeneration. Enzymatic degeneration of healthy lumbar caprine IVDs was induced by injecting 100uL of Chondroïtinase ABC (Cabc) into the nucleus. A no-intervention and PBS injected group were used as controls. IVDs were cultured in a bioreactor for 20 days under diurnal, simulated-physiological loading conditions. Disc deformation was continuously monitored. Changes in disc height recovery behavior were quantified using stretched-exponential fitting. Disc height, histological sections and water- and GAG-content measurements were used as gold standards for the degenerative state. Cabc injection caused significant GAG loss from the nucleus and had detrimental effects on poro-elastic mechanical properties of the IVDs. These were progressive over time, with a propensity towards more linear recovery behavior. On histological sections, both PBS en Cabc injected IVDs showed moderate degeneration. A small GAG loss yields significant changes in IVD recovery behavior, which were quantified with stretched-exponential fit parameters. Studies on early disc degeneration and biomaterial engineering for DDD could benefit from focusing on IVD biomechanical behavior rather than height, as marker for early disc degeneration.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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