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Research Papers

Quantitative Analysis of Tissue Damage Evolution in Porcine Liver With Interrupted Mechanical Testing Under Tension, Compression, and Shear

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph Chen, Bryn Brazile, Raj Prabhu, Sourav S. Patnaik, Robbin Bertucci, Lakiesha N. Williams

Department of Biological Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762

Hongjoo Rhee, M. F. Horstemeyer

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762

Yi Hong

Department of Bioengineering,
University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, TX 79010

Jun Liao

Department of Biological Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762;
Tissue Biomechanics &
Bioengineering Laboratory,
Department of Bioengineering,
University of Texas at Arlington,
500 UTA Boulevard, Suite 353,
Arlington, TX 79010
e-mail: jun.liao@uta.edu

1Both authors contributed equally as first authors.

2Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 5, 2017; final manuscript received March 18, 2018; published online April 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Raffaella De Vita.

J Biomech Eng 140(7), 071010 (Apr 30, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1575; doi: 10.1115/1.4039825 History: Received December 05, 2017; Revised March 18, 2018

In this study, the damage evolution of liver tissue was quantified at the microstructural level under tensile, compression, and shear loading conditions using an interrupted mechanical testing method. To capture the internal microstructural changes in response to global deformation, the tissue samples were loaded to different strain levels and chemically fixed to permanently preserve the deformed tissue geometry. Tissue microstructural alterations were analyzed to quantify the accumulated damages, with damage-related parameters such as number density, area fraction, mean area, and mean nearest neighbor distance (NND). All three loading states showed a unique pattern of damage evolution, in which the damages were found to increase in number and size, but decrease in NND as strain level increased. To validate the observed damage features as true tissue microstructural damages, more samples were loaded to the above-mentioned strain levels and then unloaded back to their reference state, followed by fixation. The most major damage-relevant features at higher strain levels remained after the release of the external loading, indicating the occurrence of permanent inelastic deformation. This study provides a foundation for future structure-based constitutive material modeling that can capture and predict the stress-state dependent damage evolution in liver tissue.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Representative true stress–strain curves of (a) tensile testing of porcine liver to 20% strain, (b) compression testing of porcine liver to 40% strain, (c) shear testing of porcine liver to 2000 Pa, and (d) histology of native liver tissue at load-free status (control group)

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Fig. 2

Representative histological images of damage evolution of porcine liver obtained from tensile interrupted mechanical tests at (a) 10%, (b) 20%, and (c) 30% strains

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Fig. 3

Microfeature parameters quantified from histological images of tensile interrupted mechanical tests with error bars representing the STDEV of each parameter: (a) area fraction, (b) number density, (c) mean NND, and (d) mean area

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Fig. 4

Representative histological images of damage evolution of porcine liver obtained from compressive interrupted mechanical tests at (a) 10%, (b) 20%, (c) 30%, and (d) 40% strains

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Fig. 5

Microfeature parameters quantified from histological images of compressive interrupted mechanical tests with error bars representing the STDEV of each parameter: (a) area fraction, (b) number density, (c) mean NND, and (d) mean area

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Fig. 6

Representative histological images of damage evolution of porcine liver obtained from shear interruption mechanical tests at a shear angle of (a) 0.8 rad, (b) 0.9 rad, and (c) 1.0 rad

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Fig. 7

Microfeature parameters quantified from histological images of shear interrupted mechanical tests with error bars representing the STDEV of each parameter: (a) area fraction, (b) number density, (c) mean NND, and (d) mean area

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Fig. 8

Representative histological images obtained from verification experiments of three loading modes. The liver tissue was loaded to the target tensile strain levels at (a) 10%, (b) 20%, and (c) 30%, and then unloaded to the reference status (undeformed) to obtain the tissue histology. The liver tissue was loaded to the target compressive strain levels at (d) 10%, (e) 20%, (f) 30%, and (g) 40%, and then unloaded to the reference status (undeformed) to obtain the tissue histology. The liver tissue was loaded to the target shear strain levels at (h) 0.8 rad, (i) 0.9 rad, and (j) 1.0 rad, and then unloaded to the reference status (undeformed) to obtain the tissue histology.

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