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research-article

Quantitative Analysis of Tissue Damage Evolution in Porcine Liver with Interrupted Mechanical Testing under Tension, Compression, and Shear

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph Chen

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
chen.joseph@berkeley.edu

Bryn Brazile

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
blb285@gmail.com

Raj Prabhu

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
rprabhu@abe.msstate.edu

Sourav Patnaik

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
sourav.patnaik@utsa.edu

Robbin Bertucci

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
robbin733@gmail.com

Hongjoo Rhee

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
hrhee@cavs.msstate.edu

Mark F. Horstemeyer

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
mfhorst@me.msstate.edu

Yi Hong

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 79010
yihong@uta.edu

Lakiesha N. Williams

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
lwilliams@abe.msstate.edu

Jun Liao

Department of Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762; Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 79010
jun.liao@uta.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4039825 History: Received December 05, 2017; Revised March 18, 2018

Abstract

In this study, the damage evolution of liver tissue was quantified at the microstructural level under tensile, compression, and shear loading conditions using an interrupted mechanical testing method. To capture the internal microstructural changes in response to global deformation, the tissue samples were loaded to different strain levels and chemically fixed to permanently preserve the deformed tissue geometry. Tissue microstructural alterations were analyzed to quantify the accumulated damages, with damage-related parameters such as number density, area fraction, mean area, and mean Nearest Neighbor Distance (NND). All three loading states showed a unique pattern of damage evolution, in which the damages were found to increase in number and size, but decrease in NND as strain level increased. To validate the observed damage features as true tissue microstructural damages, more samples were loaded to the above-mentioned strain levels and then unloaded back to their reference state, followed by fixation. The most major damage-relevant features at higher strain levels remained after the release of the external loading, indicating the occurrence of permanent inelastic deformation. This study provides a foundation for future structure-based constitutive material modeling that can capture and predict the stress-state dependent damage evolution in liver tissue.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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