Research Papers

Benchmark for Numerical Models of Stented Coronary Bifurcation Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
P. García Carrascal

Depto. Ingeniería Energética y Fluidomecánica,
Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales,
Universidad de Valladolid,
Paseo del Cauce, 59,
Valladolid 47011, Spain
e-mail: pedro.garcia@eii.uva.es

J. García García

Depto. Ingeniería Energética,
Escuela Técnica Superior de Industriales,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2,
Madrid 28006, Spain
e-mail: javier.garciag@upm.es

J. Sierra Pallares

Depto. Ingeniería Energética y Fluidomecánica,
Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales,
Universidad de Valladolid,
Paseo del Cauce, 59,
Valladolid 47011, Spain
e-mail: jsierra@eii.uva.es

F. Castro Ruiz

Depto. Ingeniería Energética y Fluidomecánica,
Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales,
Universidad de Valladolid,
Paseo del Cauce, 59,
Valladolid 47011, Spain
e-mail: castro@eii.uva.es

F. J. Manuel Martín

Depto. Ingeniería Energética,
Escuela Técnica Superior de Industriales,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2,
Madrid 28006, Spain
e-mail: fmanuel@etsii.upm.es

Manuscript received October 10, 2017; final manuscript received February 27, 2018; published online May 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Alison Marsden.

J Biomech Eng 140(9), 091009 (May 24, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1458; doi: 10.1115/1.4039676 History: Received October 10, 2017; Revised February 27, 2018

In-stent restenosis ails many patients who have undergone stenting. When the stented artery is a bifurcation, the intervention is particularly critical because of the complex stent geometry involved in these structures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been shown to be an effective approach when modeling blood flow behavior and understanding the mechanisms that underlie in-stent restenosis. However, these CFD models require validation through experimental data in order to be reliable. It is with this purpose in mind that we performed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocity fields within flows through a simplified coronary bifurcation. Although the flow in this simplified bifurcation differs from the actual blood flow, it emulates the main fluid dynamic mechanisms found in hemodynamic flow. Experimental measurements were performed for several stenting techniques in both steady and unsteady flow conditions. The test conditions were strictly controlled, and uncertainty was accurately predicted. The results obtained in this research represent readily accessible, easy to emulate, detailed velocity fields and geometry, and they have been successfully used to validate our numerical model. These data can be used as a benchmark for further development of numerical CFD modeling in terms of comparison of the main flow pattern characteristics.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

RMS images of stented bifurcation models. The stent slice corresponding to the measurement section is highlighted in light gray (in red in the electronic version). The stent struts positioned between the measurement section and the PIV camera are highlighted in black.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic setup diagram, comprised of a hydraulic unsteady flow installation, a 2D2C PIV system, and a computer-driven controller

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Coronary bifurcation geometry used. (b)–(d) Outline of the stent configurations in the bifurcation. It can be observed that the two stent configurations (S12 and S21) derive from the simple stent configurations (S1 and S2, respectively).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Maximum velocity and flow rate evolution along a pulse under S12 (sections y = −17 mm for PMB; y = 16 mm for DMB and SB) and S21 (sections y = −18 mm for PMB; y = 12 mm for DMB and SB). The flow rate through the SB decreases to almost zero after instant 0.5 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Typical velocity progression along a cardiac pulse through a human left anterior coronary bifurcation (inspired by Davies et al. [21]) (left). The velocity pulse produced by the hydraulic installation at the opening of the bifurcation, which was used for unsteady measurements (right).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Example of uncertainty field for model S21 in a detailed view. It can be seen how most of the flow field displays around 8% uncertainty, except in the surroundings of the stent shadows, where this value increases.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Normalized velocity fields under SS, S1, S2, S12, and S21, for steady flow and a detailed view. Observe how protruding stent struts disturb the flow pattern.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison for steady cases. Top: nondimensional velocity contours at the middle plane obtained from numerical simulations (left) and PIV measurements (right). Bottom: velocity profiles at the middle plane obtained from PIV measurements and numerical simulations. The profiles correspond to the center of the bifurcation. The gray band corresponds to experimental error.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Velocity fields of four pulse instants for a general view. The four instants are acceleration phase, maximum velocity instant, deceleration phase, and minimum velocity phase. Shifts in flow patterns along the pulse may be observed in both models.



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