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Technical Brief

Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Subendothelial Matrix Stiffness Are Short-Lived

[+] Author and Article Information
Julie C. Kohn

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: jck256@cornell.edu

François Bordeleau

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Vanderbilt University,
Engineering and Science Building,
Nashville, TN 351631
e-mail: francois.bordeleau@vanderbilt.edu

Joseph Miller

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: jpm386@cornell.edu

Hannah C. Watkins

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: hcw47@cornell.edu

Shweta Modi

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: sm2258@cornell.edu

Jenny Ma

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: jm2386@cornell.edu

Julian Azar

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: ja522@cornell.edu

David Putnam

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853;
Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: dap43@cornell.edu

Cynthia A. Reinhart-King

Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School
of Biomedical Engineering,
Cornell University,
Weill Hall,
Ithaca, NY 14853;
Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of Engineering,
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Vanderbilt University,
Mailbox PMB 351631,
440 Engineering and Science Building,
Nashville, TN 351631
e-mails: cak57@cornell.edu;
cynthia.reinhart-king@vanderbilt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 3, 2017; final manuscript received January 29, 2018; published online April 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Seungik Baek.

J Biomech Eng 140(7), 074501 (Apr 19, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1501; doi: 10.1115/1.4039579 History: Received November 03, 2017; Revised January 29, 2018

Aerobic exercise helps to maintain cardiovascular health in part by mitigating age-induced arterial stiffening. However, the long-term effects of exercise regimens on aortic stiffness remain unknown, especially in the intimal extracellular matrix layer known as the subendothelial matrix. To examine how the stiffness of the subendothelial matrix changes following exercise cessation, mice were exposed to an 8 week swimming regimen followed by an 8 week sedentary rest period. Whole vessel and subendothelial matrix stiffness were measured after both the exercise and rest periods. After swimming, whole vessel and subendothelial matrix stiffness decreased, and after 8 weeks of rest, these values returned to baseline. Within the same time frame, the collagen content in the intima layer and the presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the whole vessel were also affected by the exercise and the rest periods. Overall, our data indicate that consistent exercise is necessary for maintaining compliance in the subendothelial matrix.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Waves , Stiffness , Aorta , Vessels
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Mice undergo an exercise regimen and a rest period. (a) Aged C57Bl/6 mice swim for 8 weeks during the exercise period, and then rest for 8 weeks. PWV is measured throughout the study, and at week 16 the mice are culled and their aortas are removed for further analysis. (b) Mouse body weight remains steady over the study in all groups; n = 4–7 mice per group, error bars are standard error of the mean (SEM).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pulse wave velocity and subendothelial matrix stiffness are affected by exercise and rest periods. (a) PWV decreases after 8 weeks of exercise and increases to baseline following 4 weeks of rest; **p < 0.005 (Student's t-test), n = 7–12 mice per data point. (b) Subendothelial matrix stiffness decreases following an exercise regimen and returns to baseline following a rest period; *p < 0.05 (student's t-test), n = 4–7 mice per group, NS = not statistically significant. Error bars are SEM in the whole figure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Left ventricular ejection fraction is inversely correlated with arterial stiffness. (a) Representative ultrasound images of the long-axis view of the left ventricle, used to calculate ejection fraction. (b) Ejection fraction increases with exercise and returns to baseline following a rest period; *p < 0.05 (student's t-test), n = 5–7 mice per group, error bars are SEM. (c) There is a significant inverse correlation between PWV and ejection fraction; p < 0.005 (Pearson correlation). (d) There is a significant inverse correlation between the subendothelial matrix elastic modulus and ejection fraction; p < 0.05 (Pearson correlation).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Intimal collagen and aortic CML content are affected by exercise and rest. (a) Schematic of the structured illumination microscope used to measure intimal collagen content. (b) Representative images of polarized signal, representing intimal collagen content, from sedentary and exercise mice; scale bar is 100 μm. (c) Intimal collagen content decreases with exercise and begins to increase following a rest period; n = 5–8 mice per group, error bars are minimum and maximum values. (d) Aortic content of CML, an advanced glycation product, decreases with exercise and increases following a rest period in the whole vessel; *p < 0.05 (student's t-test), n = 5–9 mice per group, error bars are SEM. NS = not statistically significant.

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