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Research Papers

A Uniaxial Testing Approach for Consistent Failure in Vascular Tissues

[+] Author and Article Information
Chao Sang

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Materials Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
636 Benedum Hall 3700 O'Hara Street,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: chs176@pitt.edu

Spandan Maiti

Department of Bioengineering,
University of Pittsburgh,
302 Benedum Hall 3700 O'Hara Street,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: spm54@pitt.edu

Ronald N. Fortunato

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Materials Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
636 Benedum Hall 3700 O'Hara Street,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: rnf6@pitt.edu

Julia Kofler

Department of Pathology,
University of Pittsburgh,
S701.3 Scaife Hall,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: koflerjk@upmc.edu

Anne M. Robertson

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Materials Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
440 Benedum Hall 3700 O'Hara Street,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: rbertson@pitt.edu

Manuscript received October 5, 2017; final manuscript received February 7, 2018; published online April 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Seungik Baek.

J Biomech Eng 140(6), 061010 (Apr 04, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1449; doi: 10.1115/1.4039577 History: Received October 05, 2017; Revised February 07, 2018

Although uniaxial tensile testing is commonly used to evaluate failure properties of vascular tissue, there is no established protocol for specimen shape or gripping method. Large percentages of specimens are reported to fail near the clamp and can potentially confound the studies, or, if discarded will result in sample waste. The objective of this study is to identify sample geometry and clamping conditions that can achieve consistent failure in the midregion of small arterial specimens, even for vessels from older individuals. Failure location was assessed in 17 dogbone specimens from human cerebral and sheep carotid arteries using soft inserts. For comparison with commonly used protocols, an additional 22 rectangular samples were tested using either sandpaper or foam tape inserts. Midsample failure was achieved in 94% of the dogbone specimens, while only 14% of the rectangular samples failed in the midregion, the other 86% failing close to the clamps. Additionally, we found midregion failure was more likely to be abrupt, caused by cracking or necking. In contrast, clamp failure was more likely to be gradual and included a delamination mode not seen in midregion failure. Hence, this work provides an approach that can be used to obtain consistent midspecimen failure, avoiding confounding clamp-related artifacts. Furthermore, with consistent midregion failure, studies can be designed to image the failure process in small vascular samples providing valuable quantitative information about changes to collagen and elastin structure during the failure process.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sample preparation and experimental setup for failure testing: (a) Arterial segment, (b) Sample opened longitudinally with schematic of dogbone- and rectangular-shaped specimens, (c) Rectangular specimen, (d) Dogbone specimen, and (e) Custom mechanical testing system with: A—linear actuator, B—the load cell, C—metal clamping system, and D—CMOS camera. In (f) foam tape attached to underside of both grips on all four surfaces and (g) enlarged image of clamps showing grip region.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of abrupt and gradual failure in mechanical loading curves. Shown are idealized loading curves to illustrate nature of abrupt failure and the three types of gradual failure (G-1, G-2, G-3).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Failure process in sheep carotid artery specimens. Four levels of deformation during loading to failure are shown: Row 1: DB-FT for (a) #S2 and (b) #S7; Row 2: Rect-FT for samples (c) #S13 and (d) #S15; as well as Row 3: Rect-SP for (e) #S19 and (f) #S21. Location of crack that led to catastrophic failure is marked by a white arrowhead, where identifiable. Adventitial side of specimen is facing camera.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Failure process in human basilar artery specimens. Four levels of deformation during loading to failure are shown. Row 1: DB-FT for (a) #H2 and (b) #H5; Row 2: Rect-FT for (c) #H8 and (d) #H11; as well as Row 3: Rect-SP for (e) #H14 and (f) #H17. Location of tear that led to catastrophic failure is marked by a white arrowhead or circled, where identifiable. Adventitial side of sample is facing camera.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Middle failure consistently achieved in dogbone specimens with foam tape. Distribution of clamp versus middle failure for three test groups for (a) sheep carotid artery and (b) human basilar artery. No samples failed in the “transition” region.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

No significant difference in ultimate stress or strain for different testing methods. Row 1: Ultimate stress in (a) sheep carotid and (b) human basilar arteries: Row 2: Ultimate strain in (c) sheep carotid and (d) human basilar arteries. The bars show average ultimate failure stress and stretch with standard deviation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Failure process differs significantly between failure modes. (a) Distribution of abrupt and gradual failure are significantly different for three failure modes in ensemble of 39 samples of vascular tissue (p < 0.0001) and (b) cluster diagram showing distribution of samples into abrupt and gradual failure groups based on area under mechanical loading curve using the R factor.

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