Research Papers

Finite Element-Based Pelvic Injury Metric Creation and Validation in Lateral Impact for a Human Body Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Caitlin M. Weaver

Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for
Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101;
Soldier Protection Sciences Branch,
U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
RDRL-WMP-B, Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Aberdeen, MD 21005
e-mail: caitlin.m.weaver.civ@mail.mil

Alexander M. Baker

Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for
Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: ambaker@wakehealth.edu

Matthew L. Davis

Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for
Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: matthew.davis@elemance.com

Anna N. Miller

Department of Orthopedic Surgery,
Washington University,
P.O. Box 8233, 660 S. Euclid Avenue,
St. Louis, MO 63110
e-mail: milleran@wustl.edu

Joel D. Stitzel

Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for
Injury Biomechanics,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120
Winston-Salem, NC 27101
e-mail: jstitzel@wakehealth.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 27, 2017; final manuscript received January 10, 2018; published online April 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Brian D. Stemper.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J Biomech Eng 140(6), 061008 (Apr 04, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1331; doi: 10.1115/1.4039393 History: Received July 27, 2017; Revised January 10, 2018

Pelvic fractures are serious injuries resulting in high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study is to develop and validate local pelvic anatomical, cross section-based injury risk metrics for a finite element (FE) model of the human body. Cross-sectional instrumentation was implemented in the pelvic region of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC M50-O) 50th percentile detailed male FE model (v4.3). In total, 25 lateral impact FE simulations were performed using input data from cadaveric lateral impact tests performed by Bouquet et al. The experimental force-time data were scaled using five normalization techniques, which were evaluated using log rank, Wilcoxon rank sum, and correlation and analysis (CORA) testing. Survival analyses with Weibull distribution were performed on the experimental peak force (scaled and unscaled) and the simulation test data to generate injury risk curves (IRCs) for total pelvic injury. Additionally, IRCs were developed for regional injury using cross-sectional forces from the simulation results and injuries documented in the experimental autopsies. These regional IRCs were also evaluated using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Based on the results of all the evaluation methods, the equal stress equal velocity (ESEV) and ESEV using effective mass (ESEV-EM) scaling techniques performed best. The simulation IRC shows slight under prediction of injury in comparison to these scaled experimental data curves. However, this difference was determined not to be statistically significant. Additionally, the ROC curve analysis showed moderate predictive power for all regional IRCs.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Simulation , Wounds , Risk , Testing
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Balogh, Z. , King, K. L. , Mackay, P. , McDougall, D. , Mackenzie, S. , Evans, J. A. , Lyons, T. , and Deane, S. A. , 2007, “ The Epidemiology of Pelvic Ring Fractures: A Population-Based Study,” J. Trauma Inj. Infect. Crit. Care, 63(5), pp. 1066–1073. [CrossRef]
Inaba, K. , Sharkey, P. W. , Stephen, D. J. G. , Redelmeier, D. A. , and Brenneman, F. D. , 2004, “ The Increasing Incidence of Severe Pelvic Injury in Motor Vehicle Collisions,” Injury, 35(8), pp. 759–765. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schiff, M. A. , Tencer, A. F. , and Mack, C. D. , 2008, “ Risk Factors for Pelvic Fracture in Lateral Impact Motor Vehicle Crashes,” Accid. Anal. Prev., 40(1), pp. 387–391. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dischinger, P. C. , Read, K. M. , Kufera, J. A. , Kerns, T. J. , Burch, C. A. , Jawed, N. , Ho, S. M. , and Burgess, A. R. , 2004, “ Consequences and Costs of Lower Extremity Injuries,” 48th Annual Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Key Biscayne, FL, Sept. 13–15, pp. 339–358.
Vrahas, M. , 1997, “ Classification and Biomechanics of Pelvic Ring Injuries,” Operative Tech. Orthop., 7(3), pp. 162–166. [CrossRef]
Durkin, A. , Sagi, H. C. , Durham, R. , and Flint, L. , 2006, “ Contemporary Management of Pelvic Fractures,” Am. J. Surg., 192(2), pp. 211–223. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tachibaba, T. , Yokoi, H. , Kirita, M. , Marukawa, S. , and Yoshiya, S. , 2009, “ Instability of the Pelvic Ring and Injury Severity Can Be Predictors of Death in Patients With Pelvic Ring Fractures: A Retrospective Study,” J. Orthop. Traumatol., 10(2), pp. 79–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Freitas, C. D. , Garotti, J. E. R. , Nieto, J. , Guimaraes, R. P. , Ono, N. K. , Honda, E. , and Polesello, G. C. , 2013, “ There Have Been Changes in the Incidence and Epidemiology of Pelvic Ring Fractures in Recent Decades?,” Rev. Bras. Ortop., 48(6), pp. 475–481. [CrossRef]
Dyer, G. S. M. , and Vrahas, M. S. , 2006, “ Review of the Pathophysiology and Acute Management of Hemorrhage in Pelvic Fracture,” Injury, 37(7), pp. 602–613. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stephen, D. J. G. , 2003, “ (ii) Management of High-Energy Pelvic Fractures,” Curr. Orthop., 17(5), pp. 335–345. [CrossRef]
Yoganandan, N. , and Pintar, F. A. , 2005, “ Response of Side Impact Dummies in Sled Tests,” Accid. Anal. Prev., 37(3), pp. 495–503. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hautmann, E. , Scherer, R. , Akiyama, A. , Page, M. , Xu, L. , Kostyniuk, G. , Sakurai, M. , Bortenschlager, K. , Harigae, T. , and Tylko, S. , 2003, “ Updated Biofidelity Rating of the Revised WorldSID Prototype Dummy,” 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Nagoya, Japan, May 19–22, pp. 1–25.
ISO, 1999, “Road Vehicles—Anthropomorphic Side Impact Dummy—Lateral Impact Response Requirements to Assess the Biofidelity of the Dummy,” International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO/TR 9790:1999.
Wismans, J. , Been, B. , Eggers, A. , Hynd, D. , Martinez, L. , Trosseille, X. , Davidsson, J. , Vezin, P. , Bortenschlager, K. , and Peluccio, S. , 2009, “Status of WorldSID 50th Percentile Male Side Impact Dummy,” European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee Working Group 12 (EEVC WG12), Report.
Tencer, A. F. , Kaufman, R. , Mack, C. , and Mock, C. , 2005, “ Factors Affecting Pelvic and Thoracic Forces in Near-Side Impact Crashes: A Study of US-NCAP, NASS, and CIREN Data,” Accid. Anal. Prev., 37(2), pp. 287–293. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Vavalle, N. A. , Davis, M. L. , Stitzel, J. D. , and Gayzik, F. S. , 2015, “ Quantitative Validation of a Human Body Finite Element Model Using Rigid Body Impacts,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 43(9), pp. 2163–2174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Vavalle, N. A. , Moreno, D. P. , Rhyne, A. C. , Stitzel, J. D. , and Gayzik, F. S. , 2013, “ Lateral Impact Validation of a Geometrically Accurate Full Body Finite Element Model for Blunt Injury Prediction,” Ann. Biomed Eng., 41(3), pp. 497–512. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pietsch, H. A. , Bosch, K. E. , Weyland, D. R. , Spratley, E. M. , Henderson, K. A. , Salzar, R. S. , Smith, T. A. , Sagara, B. M. , Demetropoulos, C. K. , Dooley, C. J. , and Merkle, A. C. , 2016, “ Evaluation of WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Biofidelity Relative to Sub-Injurious PMHS Response in Simulated Under-Body Blast Events,” Stapp Car Crash J., 60, pp. 199–246. [PubMed]
White, N. A. , Moreno, D. P. , Gayzik, F. S. , and Stitzel, J. D. , 2013, “ Cross-Sectional Neck Response of a Total Human Body FE Model During Simulated Frontal and Side Automobile Impacts,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 18(3), pp. 293–315.
White, N. A. , Danelson, K. A. , Gayzik, F. S. , and Stitzel, J. D. , 2014, “ Head and Neck Response of a Finite Element Anthropomorphic Test Device and Human Body Model During a Simulated Rotary-Wing Aircraft Impact,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 136(11), p. 111001.
Bouquet , R. , Ramet , M. , Bermond , F. , and, Cesari , D. , 1994, “ Thoracic and Pelvis Human Response to Impact,” 14th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Munich, Germany, May 23–26, pp. 100–109.
Bouquet, R. , Ramet, M. , Bermond, F. , Caire, Y. , Talantikite, Y. , Robin, S. , and Voiglio, E. , 1998, “ Pelvis Human Response to Lateral Impact,” 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Windsor, ON, Canada, May 31–June 4, pp. 1665–1686.
Park, G. , Kim, T. , Crandall, J. R. , Arregui-Dalmases, C. , and Luzon-Narro, J. , 2013, “ Comparison of Kinematics of GHBMC to PMHS on the Side Impact Condition,” International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury Conference (IRCOBI), Gothenburg, Sweden, Sept. 11–13, pp. 368–379.
Yue, N. , and Untaroiu, C. D. , 2014, “ A Numerical Investigation on the Variation in Hip Injury Tolerance With Occupant Posture During Frontal Collisions,” Traffic Inj. Prev., 15(5), pp. 513–522. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Davis, M. L. , Stitzel, J. D. , and Gayzik, F. S. , 2015, “ Thoracoabdominal Organ Volumes for Small Women,” Traffic Inj. Prev., 16(6), pp. 611–617. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Weaver, A. A. , Schoell, S. L. , and Stitzel, J. D. , 2014, “ Morphometric Analysis of Variation in the Ribs With Age and Sex,” J. Anat., 225(2), pp. 246–261. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Eppinger, R. H. , 1976, “ Prediction of Thoracic Injury Using Measurable Experimental Parameters,” Sixth International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Washington, DC, Oct. 12–15, pp. 770–779.
Mertz, H. J. , 1984, “A Procedure for Normalizing Impact Response Data,” SAE Paper No. 840884.
Viano, D. C. , 1989, “Biomechanical Responses and Injuries in Blunt Lateral Impact,” SAE Paper No. 892432.
Yoganandan, N. , Arun, M. W. J. , and Pintar, F. A. , 2014, “ Normalizing and Scaling of Data to Derive Human Response Corridors From Impact Tests,” J. Biomech., 47(8), pp. 1749–1756. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Davis, M. L. , and Gayzik, F. S. , 2016, “ An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 138(10), p. 101003.
Gehre, C. , Gades, H. , and Wernicke, P. , 2009, “ Objective Rating of Signals Using Test and Simulation Responses,” 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Stuttgart, Germany, June 15–18, pp. 1–8.
Altman, D. G. , 1991, Practical Statistics for Medical Research, Chapman and Hall, London.
McMurry, T. L. , and Poplin, G. S. , 2015, “ Statistical Considerations in the Development of Injury Risk Functions,” Traffic Inj. Prev., 16(6), pp. 618–626. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fan, J. , Upadhye, S. , and Worster, A. , 2006, “ Understanding Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curves,” Can. J. Emerg. Med., 8(1), pp. 19–20.
Grzybowski, M. , and Younger, J. G. , 1997, “Statistical Methodology—Part III: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves,” Acad. Emerg. Med., 4(8), pp. 818–826. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Peres, J. , Auer, S. , and Praxl, N. , 2016, “ Development and Comparison of Different Injury Risk Functions Predicting Pelvis Fractures in Side Impact for a Human Body Model,” International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury Conference (IRCOBI), Malaga, Spain, Sept. 14–16, pp. 661–678.
Cesari, D. , Ramet, M. , and Bouquet, R. , 1983, “ Tolerance of Human Pelvis to Fracture and Proposed Pelvic Protection Criterion to Be Measured on Side Impact Dummies,” Ninth International Technology Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 261–269.
Cavanaugh, J. M. , Walilko, T. J. , Malhotra, A. , Zhu, Y. , and King, A. L. , 1990, “Biomechanical Response and Injury Tolerance of the Pelvis in Twelve Sled Side Impacts,” SAE Paper No. 902305.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

User defined cross section in GHBMC pelvis in the area of interest for pelvic fracture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Example of GHBMC pelvic cross section with LCSYS: (a) anterior view and (b) projected cross-sectional view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of GHBMC and impactor setup for simulated testing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Injuries from lateral impact test MRB02

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Weibull model survival analysis for the (a)–(c) IPR, (d)–(f) SPR, and (g)–(i) SI region of the pelvis for axial, shear, and resultant force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Weibull survival analysis between this study and Peres et al.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Exterior and (b) interior node sets used to perform pelvic flesh morph

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Global Human Body Models Consortium pelvic thickness of (a) original model and (b) morphed model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

AUROC for the (a)–(c) IPR, (d)–(f) SPR, and (g)–(i) SI region of the pelvis for axial, shear, and resultant force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Peres et al., survival plots for log rank results for (a) all tests and (b) without Marcus et al., and Kuppa et al.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In