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Technical Brief

Validation of a Custom Instrumented Retainer Form Factor for Measuring Linear and Angular Head Impact Kinematics

[+] Author and Article Information
Logan E. Miller

School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106;
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wake Forest School of Medicine,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106
e-mail: logmille@wakehealth.edu

Calvin Kuo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
443 Via Ortega, Room 202,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: calvink@stanford.edu

Lyndia C. Wu

Department of Bioengineering,
Stanford University,
443 Via Ortega, Room 202,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: lyndiacw@stanford.edu

Jillian E. Urban

School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106;
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wake Forest School of Medicine,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106;
Clinical and Translational Science Institute,
Wake Forest School of Medicine,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106
e-mail: jurban@wakehealth.edu

David B. Camarillo

Department of Bioengineering,
Stanford University,
443 Via Ortega, Room 202,
Stanford, CA 94305;
Clinical and Translational Science Institute,
Wake Forest School of Medicine,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106
e-mail: dcamarillo@stanford.edu

Joel D. Stitzel

School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences,
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106;
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Wake Forest School of Medicine,
575 N. Patterson Avenue, Suite 120,
Winston-Salem, NC 27106
e-mail: jstitzel@wakehealth.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 5, 2017; final manuscript received December 14, 2017; published online March 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Barclay Morrison.

J Biomech Eng 140(5), 054501 (Mar 02, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1392; doi: 10.1115/1.4039165 History: Received September 05, 2017; Revised December 14, 2017

Head impact exposure in popular contact sports is not well understood, especially in the youth population, despite recent advances in impact-sensing technology which has allowed widespread collection of real-time head impact data. Previous studies indicate that a custom-instrumented mouthpiece is a superior method for collecting accurate head acceleration data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mounting a sensor device inside an acrylic retainer form factor to measure six-degrees-of-freedom (6DOF) head kinematic response. This study compares 6DOF mouthpiece kinematics at the head center of gravity (CG) to kinematics measured by an anthropomorphic test device (ATD). This study found that when instrumentation is mounted in the rigid retainer form factor, there is good coupling with the upper dentition and highly accurate kinematic results compared to the ATD. Peak head kinematics were correlated with r2 > 0.98 for both rotational velocity and linear acceleration and r2 = 0.93 for rotational acceleration. These results indicate that a rigid retainer-based form factor is an accurate and promising method of collecting head impact data. This device can be used to study head impacts in helmeted contact sports such as football, hockey, and lacrosse as well as nonhelmeted sports such as soccer and basketball. Understanding the magnitude and frequency of impacts sustained in various sports using an accurate head impact sensor, such as the one presented in this study, will improve our understanding of head impact exposure and sports-related concussion.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The kinematic sensor board is embedded in an acrylic retainer, and then an injection molded material was used to create the mouthpiece bonded to the acrylic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Mouthpiece fit to an upper dentition simulant installed in the headform

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Five impact sites for laboratory linear impactor testing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Peak linear acceleration, peak angular velocity, and peak angular acceleration, for all impacts. Measurements between the instrumented mouthpiece and the ATD were correlated for each data set.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Individual traces for the ATD and mouthpiece during an example frontal impact (impact velocity = 7.0 m/s)

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