Research Papers

Lessons Learned From Kinematics Research Applied to Medical Device Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Arthur Guy Erdman

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN 55455-0150
e-mail: agerdman@umn.edu

Manuscript received August 3, 2017; final manuscript received December 12, 2017; published online January 18, 2018. Editor: Beth A. Winkelstein.

J Biomech Eng 140(2), 021006 (Jan 18, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: BIO-17-1340; doi: 10.1115/1.4038764 History: Received August 03, 2017; Revised December 12, 2017

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Topics: Design , Kinematics
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Erdman, A. G. , Sandor, G. N. , and Kota, S. , ed., 2001, Mechanism Design: Analysis and Synthesis, 4th ed., Vol. 1, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, p. 665.
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Howell, L. L. , 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, Wiley, New York.
Freudenstein, F. , and Sandor, G. N. , 1959, “ Synthesis of Path-Generating Mechanisms by Means of a Programmed Digital Computer,” ASME J. Eng. Ind. Ser. B, 81(2), pp. 159–167.
Freudenstein, F. , and Sandor, G. N. , 1961, “ On the Burmester Points of a Plane,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 28(1), pp. 41–49. [CrossRef]
Bottema, O., 1961, “ Discussion: ‘On the Burmester Points of a Plane' (Freudenstein, Ferdinand, and Sandor, George N., 1961, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 28, pp. 41–49),” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 28(3), pp. 473–474.
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Chase, T. R. , Kinzel, G. L. , and Erdman, A. G. , 2013, “ Computer Aided Mechanism Synthesis: A Historical Perspective,” Advances in Mechanisms, Robotics and Design Education and Research (Mechanisms and Machine Science, Vol. 14), V. Kumar, J. Schmiedeler, S. Sreenivasan, and H. J. Su, eds., Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 17–33. [CrossRef]
Rubel, A. J. , and Kaufman, R. E. , 1977, “ KINSYN III: A New Human-Engineered System for Interactive Computer-Aided Design of Planar Linkages,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 99(2), pp. 440–448. [CrossRef]
Erdman, A. G. , and Lonn, D. , 1975, “ A Unified Synthesis of Planar Six-Bar Mechanisms Using Burmester Theory,” Fourth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, Sept. 8–12. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/unified-synthesis-of-planar-six-bar-mechanisms-using-burmester-th
Erdman, A. G. , and Gustafson, J. E. , 1977, “LINCAGES: Linkage Interactive Computer Analysis and Graphically Enhanced Synthesis Package,” ASME Paper No. 77-DET-5.
Erdman, A. G. , Ning, Y. , and Byers, B. , 2000, “LINCAGES: Latest Developments and Case Study,” ASME Paper No. DETC2002/MECH-34375.
Erdman, A. G. , 1984, “ The Role of Super Computers in Mechanism Design,” NSF Study on Super Computers in Mechanical Systems, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
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Erdman, A. , 2002, “Multi-Hinged Skate and Methods for Construction of Same,” U.S. Patent No. 6,431,558 B1. http://www.google.ch/patents/US6431558
Buesseler, R. , Hom, D. , and Erdman, A. , 2013, “Fastener Deployment System and Method,” U.S. Patent No. 8387849. https://www.google.com.pg/patents/US8387849
Filemon, E. , 1972, “ Useful Ranges of Centerpoint Curves for Design of Crank-and-Rocker Linkages,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 7(1), pp. 47–53. [CrossRef]
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Buesseler, R. , Erdman, A. , and Hom, D. , 2009, “ Novel Stapling Method and Device for Nasal Surgery,” ASME J. Med. Devices, 3(4), p. 041007. [CrossRef]
Oura, M. , Menchaca, H. , Erdman, A. G. , and Buchwald, H. , 2013, “ Surgical Access System for Frugal Bariatric Surgery,” ASME J. Med. Devices, 3(2), p. 020947. [CrossRef]
Buchwald, H. , Erdman, A. , Menchaca, H. , Michajek, V. , and Suguitani, N. , 2015, “Micro-Orifice Surgical Access System,” Regents Of University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, U.S. Patent No. 9072501. http://www.google.tl/patents/US20140275801
Grood, E. , Hartfel, M. , Erdman, A. , and Kittur, M. , 1984, “On the Use of Burmester Curves to Explain Attachment Points of the Collateral Ligaments,” Advances in Bioengineering, ASME, New York, pp. 55–56.
Hartfel, M. , Erdman, A. G. , and Rosen, D. , 1985, “Extension of Burmester Theory to Model the Ligament Attachment Sites of the Knee,” Advances in Bioengineering, ASME, New York, pp. 107–108.
Müller, W. , 2015, “ Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Knee,” Sports Injuries, Springer, Berlin, pp. 883–908.
Erdman, A. G. , 2000, “Lens Storage and Folding Apparatus,” Micro Medical Devices, Inc., Calabasas, CA, U.S. Patent No. 6,048,347. https://www.google.tl/patents/US6048347
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Root, R. R. , and Ragsdell, K. M. , 1976, “ A Survey of Optimization Methods Applied to the Design of Mechanisms,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 98(3), pp. 1036–1041. [CrossRef]
Riley, D. R. , and Erdman, A. G. , 1981, “ Computer Graphics and Computer Aided Design in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Minnesota,” Comput. Educ., 5(4), pp. 229–243. [CrossRef]
Erdman, A. , Keefe, D. , and Schiestl, R. , 2013, “ Grand Challenge: Applying Regulatory Science and Big Data to Improve the Innovation and Approval Process for Medical Devices,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 60(3), pp. 700–706. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Keefe, D. F. , Sotiropoulos, F. , Interrante, V. , Runesha, H. B. , Coffey, D. , Staker, M. , Lin, C.-L. , Sun, Y. , Borazjani, I. , Le, T. , Rowe, N. , and Erdman, A. , 2010, “ A Process for Design, Verification, Validation, and Manufacture of Medical Devices Using Immersive VR Environments,” ASME J. Med. Dev., 4(4), p. 045002. [CrossRef]
Coffey, D. , Malbraaten, N. , Le, T. B. , Borazjani, I. , Soteropoulos, F. , Erdman, A. , and Keefe, D. , 2012, “ Interactive Slice WIM: Navigating and Interrogating Volume Data Sets Using a Multisurface, Multitouch VR Interface,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graph., 18(10), pp. 1614–1626. [CrossRef]
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Coffey, D. , Lin, C.-L. , Erdman, A. , and Keefe, D. , 2013, “ Design by Dragging: An Interface for Creative Forward and Inverse Design With Simulation Ensembles,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graph., 19(12), pp. 2783–2791. [CrossRef]


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Fig. 2

Selection of Max and Min values of parameters and three instances within a three-dimensional design space

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Fig. 3

Potential solutions within a three-dimensional design space

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Fig. 4

Kinematic synthesis of linkage mechanisms

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Fig. 5

kinsyn 1 was a home-made system user in the loop design system

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Fig. 6

Potentially the first interactive patient specific medical device designed—a polycentric knee

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Fig. 1

Flowchart of the product development process

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Fig. 7

The kinsyn III hardware. The human user was utilized as an integral part of the synthesis procedure. The user observed the current state of the design on the CRT screen and input directions for continuing the synthesis by way of a data tablet. (From Ref. [9]; used by permission of ASME.)

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Fig. 8

(a) Burmester curves representing all ground and moving pivot locations for the four prescribed design positions (square = 1st design position and circles the other three positions). Not shown are the prescribed angular orientations, (b) design map showing regions where viable solutions are according to minimum transmission angle measure, and (c) a blowup of a region of the map shown in (b).

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Fig. 9

Integration of ICEM CAE kinematics, lincages, and adams, including skeleton diagram of the six-bar

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Fig. 10

Multiple design positions of the six-bar extractor

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Fig. 11

Six bar solution from lincages animated in ICEM kinematics then used as input into adams

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Fig. 12

Maximum stresses in arm shown. Dynamic loads from adams used as boundary conditions in ANSYS.

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Fig. 13

Natural ankle movement—natural ankle motion in consecutive photographs. One four-bar found to match movement of the joint is included.

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Fig. 14

Prototype skate boot

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Fig. 15

Pistol-shaped fastener deployment hand piece

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Fig. 19

Reproduced from Ref. [24]

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Fig. 16

Surgical system access mechanism

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Fig. 17

Reproduced from Grood, E. et al. [22]

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Fig. 18

Output from the lincages software, depending on which knee position is chosen. A different set of Burmester curves are produced. Two example sets are shown based on different input parameter sets of four prescribed positions.

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Fig. 20

Manual folding of an IOL. The surgeon retrieves the IOL from its container (1) and folds it using both hands (2) and (3). The completely folded IOL (4) is ready for insertion into a cassette.

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Fig. 21

(a) The linkage in three positions as it is actuated. The top illustration shows the initial position. (b) Burmester curves for the four prescribed positions. By choosing pivot locations that were near the corners of the lens holder, then the custom mechanism would be created.

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Fig. 22

(a) Top and side views of the delivery tube including delivery port. (b) Side and end views of the docked holder/folder and the delivery tube. (c) Docking the holder/folder onto the delivery tube.

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Fig. 23

A lincages-generated design map of all available solutions for the specified design positions

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Fig. 24

Sketch of a proposed virtual environment for preclinical medical device design (2006)

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Fig. 25

Artist concept of a virtual design environment (Daniel Keefe's Interactive Visualization Lab, University of Minnesota)

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Fig. 26

The radar chart (or wheel plot): input parameters are on the left and output measures on the right. The five-sided shape is one instance of a potential design solution. By dragging along each spoke, new solutions are revealed. This set of plots is related to the next two examples.

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Fig. 27

ATEC vacuum-assisted biopsy device. The inner cutter is both rotated and translated within the outer cannula, causing suspected tissue which has been drawn into the distal aperture in the outer cannula, to be severed from the breast tissue and drawn back into the tissue sample collector.

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Fig. 28

Virtual design of a vacuum-assisted biopsy tool—schematic of the system showing key variables

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Fig. 29

Examples of designing a biopsy needle using direct manipulation via data visualizations. The colored stress fields are the result of a load (see red arrow) at the tip of the needle representing leveraging the needle against the ribs. In forward design, the user drags an edge of the opening window to the right (a). This operation is interpreted as decreasing the window length (b). In inverse design, the user attempts to move a high stress region (the cursor location) away from the corner of the opening window. The user right-clicks on the region (c), and then, the system suggests design alternatives that have the closest distances (determined by calculating the differences between the parameter values and the weighting) from the current one, shown as preview bubbles (enlarged view in circular windows). Each of the preview bubbles shows a magnified view of local stress distribution, which informs where the high stress region can possibly be moved. The user finally moves into the most-right preview bubble to switch to a new design alternative. This design alternative shows that the high stress region has moved away from the window corner (d).

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Fig. 30

Locating the dry tap: cutting adipose tissue with low cutting speeds. The deformed mesh is shown on the top while the stress distributions are show on the bottom graphic.

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Fig. 31

Preview bubbles are shown near the dry tap area

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Fig. 32

An optimal design that removes dry tap




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