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research-article

Development of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Mechanical Model for Predicting Strain-based Brain Injury Responses

[+] Author and Article Information
Lee F. Gabler

Center for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia Mail - PO Box 400237, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4237Location - 4040 Lewis and Clark Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22911
lfg4dc@virginia.edu

Hamed Joodaki

Center for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia Mail - PO Box 400237, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4237Location - 4040 Lewis and Clark Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22911
hj2vq@eservices.virginia.edu

Jeff R. Crandall

Center for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia Mail - PO Box 400237, Charlottesville, VA 22904-42374040 Lewis and Clark Drive Charlottesville, VA 22911
jrc2h@eservices.virginia.edu

Matthew B. Panzer

Center for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia Mail - PO Box 400237, Charlottesville, VA 22904-42374040 Lewis and Clark Drive Charlottesville, VA 22903
mbp2q@virginia.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038357 History: Received January 30, 2017; Revised October 23, 2017

Abstract

Linking head impact kinematics to injury risk has been the focus of numerous brain injury criteria. Although many early forms were developed using mechanics principles, recent criteria have been developed using empirical methods based on subsets of head impact data. In this study, a single-degree-of-freedom (sDOF) mechanical analogue was developed to study the link between rotational head kinematics and brain deformation. Model efficacy was assessed by comparing its dynamic response to strain-based brain injury predictors from finite element (FE) human head models. A series of idealized rotational pulses covering a broad range of acceleration and velocity magnitudes (0.1-15krad/s2 and 1-100rad/s) with durations between (1-3000ms) were applied to the mechanical models about each axis of the head. Results show that brain deformation magnitude is governed by three categories of rotational head motion each distinguished by impact duration relative to the brain’s natural period: for short-duration pulses, maximum brain deformation depended primarily on angular velocity magnitude; for long-duration pulses, brain deformation depended primarily on angular acceleration magnitude; and for pulses relatively close to the natural period, brain deformation depended on both velocity and acceleration magnitudes. These results suggest that brain deformation mechanics can be adequately explained by simple mechanical systems, since FE model responses and experimental brain injury tolerances exhibited similar patterns to the sDOF model. Finally, the sDOF model was the best correlate to strain-based responses, and highlighted fundamental limitations with existing rotational brain injury metrics.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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